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The formation of soil largely depends on the climate, the topography of the place and other such factors. India is land of different kinds of terrains, and hence a large variety of soils can be found here. Broadly, there are four kinds of soils found in the Indian Subcontinent- Alluvial soil, Red soil, Black soil, and Laterite soil.

1. Alluvial soil: this soil is made of alluvium and is generally deposited by rivers, wind and sea waves. It is very rich and fertile. This soil is primarily found in the Indo-Ganga Brahmaputra plains, river valley of southern India and the coast. This is further divided into new alluvial soil and old alluvial soil.

2. Red soil: composes of iron and metamorphic rocks and are found in the regions of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Mysore and parts of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. This coil is medium fertile and is located in areas with low rainfall.

3. Black Soil: also known as the Regur soil is found in the Deccan lava plateau and can hold large amounts of water. It is highly fertile and contains Lime and Potash. This soil is best suited for the cultivation of cotton. It is found in regions of Maharashtra, Gujrat, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh.

4. Laterite Soil: this is clayey soil and is formed under conditions of high temperatures and heavy rainfall. This soil is very infertile and is used to grow coffee, tea, coconut. Its commonly found in the Western Ghats (Kerala, Karnataka) and in Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, and Assam

5. The other two soils found in India are Mountain soil (Alpine forest belt) and Dessert soil (Rajasthan, Haryana).

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