NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science

NCERT - Science

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science provided by Goprep can help you resolve all your doubts that you are facing in NCERT Science Class 10 textbook. Our experienced subject experts have prepared NCERT Class 10 Science Solutions in a step-by-step manner to develop better understanding among students of class 10.

NCERT Science Class 10 book comprises of three subjects, i.e. Physics, Chemistry, and Biology. There are plenty of topics in these subjects that students find tough to understand which hampers their performance in the board exam. Therefore, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science are considered an extremely useful resource for exam preparation.

You can select the desired chapter from the list given below to browse NCERT solutions for it.

NCERT Class 10 Science Solutions - All Chapters

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science | Chapter-wise Description

The textbook of Class 10 Science consists of 16 chapters. The first 5 chapters of the book contain concepts of Chemistry, 7 chapters are of Biology and the remaining 4 chapters talk about concepts of Physics. The question paper of CBSE Class 10 Science will carry a total weightage of 80 marks wherein Unit-1 comprising 5 chapters has the maximum weightage of 25 marks. 

Let us understand the summary of each chapter of NCERT Science Class 10 Book PDF. 

Chapter 1- Chemical Reactions and Equations

NCERT Class 10 Science Chapter-1 begins the introduction of chemical equations. A chemical equation is characterized by the presence of reactants, products, and physical states. In a chemical reaction, you always have to balance the chemical equation, i.e. the atoms involved of each type should be equal in number on the reactant and product sides of the equation. 

Next, you will study 5 types of chemical reactions, which are Combination Reaction, Decomposition Reaction, Displacement Reaction, Double Displacement Reaction, and Oxidation/Reduction. During oxidation, atoms involved in the chemical reaction gain oxygen or lose hydrogen. Reduction, on the other hand, takes place when there is a loss of oxygen and gain of hydrogen. 

Having understood the process of oxidation and reduction, you can proceed with studying the effects of oxidation reactions in everyday life. Corrosion and Rancidity are two important terminologies that will help you understand the oxidation process in real life. 

Important Topics of Class 10 Science Chapter-1

  • Chemical Equations
  • Types of Chemical Reactions
  • Effects of Oxidation Reactions in Everyday Life

Chapter 2- Acids, Bases & Salts

In previous classes, we have learnt that our food tastes sour or bitter due to the presence of acids and bases, respectively. In chapter-2 of NCERT Class 10 Science Solutions, we will observe what happens when acids and bases react with each other. Acid-base indicators are used to detect the presence of acids and bases. Litmus paper and turmeric are two examples of natural indicators. 

The first topic of the chapter is about understanding the chemical properties of acids and bases. We will observe different reactions including acids/bases with metals, metal carbonates/metal hydrocarbonates with acids, metal oxides with acids, acids with bases, and non-metallic oxides with bases. Further, we will know about the similarities between acids and bases. 

Nearing the end of Chapter-2 of CBSE NCERT Science Class 10 Book, you will learn how to determine the strength of acids and bases using the pH scale. Finally, know about the day-to-day and industrial applications of salts. 

Important Topics of Class 10 Science Chapter-2

  • Understanding the Chemical Properties of Acids and Bases
  • What Do All Acids and All Bases have in Common?
  • How Strong are Acid or Base Solutions?
  • More About Salts

Chapter 3- Metals and Non-Metals

Previously, you have learnt to differentiate between metals and non-metals based on their properties. Metals are ductile, sonorous, malleable, and shiny whereas non-metals do not display such properties. When learning CBSE Class 10 Science Solutions of Chapter-3, you will first come across questions revolving around the physical and chemical properties of metals and non-metals. 

In the next topic, you will observe what happens when metals react with non-metals. Further, this section also discusses the general properties of ionic compounds- physical nature, melting/boiling point, solubility, and conduction of electricity. Another major topic of this chapter is the occurrence of metals wherein you will study the processes such as extraction of metals, enrichment of ores, etc. 

The final topic of this chapter is about the process of corrosion that you have already studied in brief in Chapter-1. Study this concept in detail while revisiting the pointers covered in the first chapter. Also, know about how can we prevent corrosion of metals. 

Important topics of Class 10 Science Chapter-3

  • Physical Properties of Metals & Non-metals
  • Chemical Properties of Metals
  • How do Metals and Non-metals react?
  • Occurrence of Metals
  • Corrosion

Chapter 4- Carbon and its Compounds

So far we have studied various compounds and their importance. Moving forward, we will cover the properties of important compounds. In this chapter, you will be first introduced to the properties of carbon and its importance. Carbon exists in several forms in nature that makes it a versatile element. 

Carbon is a tetravalent element and also exhibits the property of catenation. This is the reason carbon forms a wide range of compounds. Next, you will study the concept of covalent bond in which two atoms share electrons to complete the octet or achieve a completely filled outermost shell. In NCERT Science Book Class 10 Solutions of Chapter-4, you will solve questions based on the concepts including, the nomenclature of carbon compounds, chemical properties of carbon compounds, etc. 

Towards the end of this chapter, you will study two important carbon compounds such as ethanol and ethanoic acid. Also, know the properties of ethanol and ethanoic acid. Finally, study the action of soaps and detergents and how they are effective against the oily dirt and its removal. 

Important Topics of Class 10 Science Chapter-4

  • Bonding in Carbon- The Covalent Bond
  • Versatile Nature of Carbon
  • Chemical Properties of Carbon Compounds
  • Some Important Carbon Compounds- Ethanol and Ethanoic Acid
  • Soaps and Detergents

Chapter 5- Periodic Classification of Elements

In Chapter-5 of CBSE NCERT Class 10 Science, you will study how to classify elements in the periodic table based on their properties. Currently, there are 118 elements in the periodic table; of which 94 elements occur in nature. The first topic of this chapter discusses the early attempts made by chemists like Dobereiner or Newland for organizing the elements in the periodic table. 

Then, it was Mendeleev who proposed changes in the periodic table. This chapter talks about the achievements and limitations of the periodic table by Mendeleev. He placed the elements in increasing order of their atomic masses and also based on their chemical properties. 

In the latter half of the chapter, you will learn about modifications in Mendeleev’s periodic table made by Henry Moseley. According to Moseley, the atomic number of an element exhibits a more fundamental property than its atomic mass. 

Important Topics of Class 10 Science Chapter-5

  • Early Attempts at the Classification of Elements
  • Mendeleev’s Periodic Table
  • The Modern Periodic Table

Chapter 6- Life Processes

The human body performs various life processes such as respiration, digestion, transportation of materials within the body, and excretion of waste products. Next, you will study the role of nutrition in our body and how we obtain nutrition. There are two modes of nutrition- autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition. 

Autotrophic nutrition is also called self-nourishment wherein organisms prepare their food using an external source of energy to synthesise complex organic material. Heterotrophic nutrition, on the other hand, is practiced by organisms who cannot prepare their own food and depend on other organisms for survival. 

Further, you will study the process of respiration in detail. Respiration can be aerobic or anaerobic, depending on the presence of oxygen. Next, you will learn about how different materials such as gases, food, and excretory products are transported in the body. Also, study the transportation of water, minerals, and food in plants. Excretory processes of both humans and plants have been explained in detail in NCERT Science Book Class 10 Solutions. 

Important Topics of Class 10 Science Chapter-6

  • What are Life Processes?
  • Nutrition
  • Respiration
  • Transportation
  • Excretion

Chapter 7- Control and Coordination

In the last chapter, we studied different life processes that take place inside the human body and other living organisms. In Chapter-7 ‘Control & Coordination’ of NCERT Class 10 Science Book, we will study different movements associated with life processes. Specialised tissues present in our body are responsible for facilitating control and coordination in our body. 

Organisms show controlled movement in response to an event taking place in the environment. You will learn about the mechanism of our body during reflex actions and how our brain receives and transfers signals throughout the body. The three different responses of the nervous system are reflex action, voluntary action, and involuntary action. 

The nervous system plays the role of transmitting information in the form of electrical impulses. Neurons are small units which are connected to each other to form a nervous tissue. The series of neurons collect the information from sense organs and sent them to the brain. Chemical coordination is a characteristic of both plants and animals. 

Important Topics of Class 10 Science Chapter-7

  • Animals- Nervous System
  • Coordination in Plants
  • Hormones in Animals

Chapter 8- How do Organisms Reproduce?

NCERT Class 10 Science Chapter-8 serves the motive of explaining the importance of reproduction for the living organisms. To define, reproduction allows organisms to give rise to new individuals that have similar characteristics. 

The opening topic of this chapter gives us knowledge about whether organisms create identical copies of themselves or not. Study what are variations and how they are crucial for the survival of the next generation. Next, you will study different modes of reproduction used by single organisms which are Fission, Fragmentation, Regeneration, Budding, Vegetative Propagation, and Spore Formation. These all modes are classified under asexual reproduction where only a single parent is involved for giving rise to individuals. 

When there are two parents involved in giving rise to an individual, the mode of reproduction is called sexual reproduction. Unlike the asexual mode, sexual reproduction ensures variations that guarantee the continuity of species from one generation to another. 

We will study sexual reproduction in the case of both flowering plants and human beings. Male and female reproductive systems are involved in the process of sexual reproduction. The male reproductive system in human beings comprises a pair of testes, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, urethra, and penis. The female reproductive system consists of a pair of ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina. Finally, you will study about contraceptive methods to avoid pregnancy. 

Chapter 9- Heredity and Evolution

Having studied Class 10 Science question answers of Chapter-8, you must have developed a better understanding of its concepts. Now we know that fusion of males and female gametes lead to the formation of a zygote which develops into an embryo. Out of the two modes of reproduction, sexual reproduction ensures variations which help species to continue their survival from one generation to another. 

In Chapter-9 of CBSE Class 10 Science Book, you will study the mechanism by which variations are produced and inherited. Sexual mode of reproduction allows individuals to generate two copies for the same trait. These copies are not identical; the trait that gets expressed is said to be the dominant trait whereas the other one is called the recessive trait. 

Further, you will get to understand the concept of sex determination. Also, learn how variations help species to survive in adverse conditions. In the latter half of the chapter, you will study regarding evolutionary relationships and how evolution supports the survival of species. 

Important Topics of Class 10 Science Chapter-9

  • Accumulation of Variation during Reproduction
  • Heredity
  • Evolution
  • Speciation
  • Evolution & Classification

Chapter 10- Light – Reflection And Refraction

The concept of Physics ‘Light’ is defined as the natural phenomena that allow us to see objects. In this chapter, we will learn about the properties of light, phenomena of reflection and refraction, and applications of these phenomena in real-life situations. 

The opening topic of this chapter talks about ‘reflection of light’, which means bouncing back of the light. There are two laws associated with it that you will learn while studying NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter-10. Further, you will come to know that images are of two types- real and virtual, depending on the position of the object. 

Reflecting and refractive surfaces of all types obey the laws of reflection and refraction, respectively. Next, you will learn to find out the relationship between the object-distance, image-distance, and focal length of a spherical mirror. This relationship is called a mirror formula. Similarly, you will study lens formula where you will obtain the relationship between the object-distance, image-distance, and the focal length of a spherical lens. 

Important Topics of Class 10 Science Chapter-10

  • Reflection of Light
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Refraction of Light

Chapter 11- Human Eye and Colourful World

In the previous chapter, we talked about various phenomena such as refraction of light by lenses, reflection, etc. Also, you now understand the nature, position, and relative size of an image formed by lenses. In Chapter 11, we will be implementing these ideas to study the human eye. Our eyes enable us to see objects using the light. 

As we proceed, we will learn how the lenses used in the spectacles are effective against defects of vision. We will study the role of the lens present in the human eye. Apart from this, we will also cover concepts about the rainbow formation, the reason behind the blue colour of the sky, and the splitting of white light. 

NCERT Class 10 Science Solutions contain question answers related to the concepts of dispersion (splitting of light into its constituent colours), scattering of light, common defects of the eye, etc. Some of the most common vision defects are myopia, hypermetropia, and presbyopia. 

Important Topics of Class 10 Science Chapter-11

  • The Human Eye
  • Defects of Vision and their Correction
  • Refraction of Light through a Prism
  • Dispersion of White Light by a Glass Prism
  • Atmospheric Refraction
  • Scattering of Light

Chapter 12- Electricity

In Chapter-12 of NCERT Science Class 10 textbook, you will study various concepts of Electricity. The flow of electric charges in a conducting body is called an electric current. What makes up electricity? How do the electric charges flow in an electric circuit? Get to know the answers to all such questions in this chapter. 

Conventionally, the direction of electric current is assumed opposite to the direction of flow of negatively charged particles ‘electrons’. Electric current is represented by ‘I’ and its SI unit is Ampere. An electric circuit consists of a battery, a bulb, resistors, and wires. Battery brings the electrons in motion and causes a potential difference across its terminals. Potential difference is denoted by V and its SI unit is volts.

Resistance caused by resistors plays the role of limiting the flow of current in a conductor. Next, you will study Ohm’s law, which is an important topic from an examination perspective. Further, you will learn to calculate the equivalent resistance for a set of resistors in series and parallel connection. The last topic of this chapter is about how to calculate the dissipation of electrical energy in a resistor. 

Important Topics of Class 10 Science Chapter-12

  • Electric Current and Circuit
  • Electric Potential and Potential Difference
  • Circuit Diagram
  • Ohm’s Law
  • Factors on which the Resistance of a Conductor Depends
  • The Resistance of a System of Resistors
  • Heating Effect of Electric Current
  • Electric Power

Chapter 13- Magnetic Effects of Electric Current

So far we have learnt how electric charges flow through an electric circuit. Due to the flow of charges, heat energy is released in the conductor. In Chapter-13, we shall explore other effects of electric current. A current-carrying conductor acts like a magnet and leads to the formation of the magnetic field in the region surrounding it. Field lines are used to represent a magnetic field.

Further in this chapter, you will study the pattern of magnetic field lines around a metallic wire, a solenoid, and a bar magnet. In the second half of this chapter, you will study the construction of an electromagnet. Through Fleming’s right-hand rule, you can determine the direction of induced current. Also, know about other concepts including, the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction, conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy, etc. 

Important Topics of Class 10 Science Chapter-13

  • Magnetic Field and Field Lines
  • Magnetic Field due to a Current-Carrying Conductor
  • Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor in a Magnetic Field
  • Electric Motor
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electric Generator
  • Domestic Electric Circuits

Chapter 14- Sources of Energy

In this chapter, we will study about conventional sources of energy that are facing the danger of getting exhausted. Next, we will learn the similarities and differences between fossil fuels and direct sources of energy. Another important topic of CBSE NCERT Class 10 Science Chapter-14 is the similarities and differences between biomass and hydroelectricity. 

Next comes the classification of energy sources as renewable/non-renewable & exhaustible/inexhaustible. In the latter half of the chapter, we will also go through the qualities of an ideal source of energy. Important question-answers of Class 10 Science Chapter-14 includes the list of advantages and disadvantages of solar cooker, limitations of extracting energy from various sources such as the wind, waves, tides, etc. 

Important Topics of Class 10 Science Chapter-14

  • What is a Good Source of Energy
  • Conventional Sources of Energy
  • Non-Conventional Sources of Energy
  • Environmental Consequences

Chapter 15- Our Environment

In Chapter-15 of NCERT Science Book Class 10, you will study different components of the environment and their interaction with each other. The first topic ‘ecosystem’ is about how living and non-living constituents of the environment interact with each other. An ecosystem comprises biotic components (human beings, plants, and animals) and abiotic components (rainfall, wind, soil, and minerals). 

Moving forward, you will study the food chains and food web. While studying these topics, you will realise that there are different trophic levels in a food chain. As we go up in the inverted pyramid model, there is a loss of energy from one trophic level to the next. 

Different trophic levels in a food chain are producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, and tertiary consumers. Producers obtain energy from the sun and the rest of the organisms of other trophic levels in an ecosystem, in turn, obtain energy from producers. In the latter half of this chapter, we will study how human activities have become a major cause of environmental problems. 

Important Topics of Class 10 Science Chapter-15

  • Ecosystem- What are its components?
  • How Do Our Activities Affect the Environment?

Chapter 16- Management of Natural Resources

The last chapter of NCERT Science Class 10 textbook is about natural resources and how to use them wisely. In the next topic, we will study 5 Rs for saving the environment which is to Refuse, Reduce, Reuse, Repurpose, and Recycle. The following topic ‘Water for All’ will spread awareness among us on how we can prevent the activities that are polluting the water bodies. 

The building of dams and rainwater harvesting are two effective ways to preserve the adequate amount of water. In the second half of this chapter, we will study how we can limit the use of exhaustible resources such as coal and petroleum. 

Important Topics of Class 10 Science Chapter-16

  • Why Do We Need to Manage our Resources?
  • Forests and Wildlife
  • Water for All
  • Coal & Petroleum
  • An Overview of Natural Resource Management

CBSE Class 10 Science Unit-wise Marks Distribution

Prior to CBSE Class 10th Science Board exam preparation, you should go through the CBSE syllabus and unit-wise marking scheme. This will help you to devise a strategy on how to prepare efficiently and score good marks. Based on the marking scheme, you can then emphasize on units or chapters carrying more weightage. 

Check out the unit-wise marking scheme for CBSE Class 10 Science exam here. 

Unit No




Chemical Substances- Nature and Behaviour



World of Living



Natural Phenomena



Effects of Current



Natural Resources




Internal Assessment


Grand Total


CBSE Class 10 Science Board Exam Pattern

As per the latest exam pattern, CBSE Class 10 Science question paper will include more number of objective type questions. The total number of questions has been increased from 27 to 30. Let us know the section-wise marking scheme. There will be 3 sections in the question paper; A, B & C. 

Section & Type of Questions

Number of Questions

Weightage of Each Question

Section A: MCQs, VSA & Assertion 



Section B: Very Short Answer Type



Section C: Long Answer Type



Note: There will be no overall choice in the question paper. However, students can make use of internal choice in all three sections.

Best Reference Books for CBSE Class 10 Science

After you have cleared your basic concepts from NCERT Class 10 Science textbook, you can pick a Reference Book for Class 10 Science for practicing extra questions. In addition, you can also prepare notes and solve a variety of numerical problems that require higher-order thinking skills. 

Below we have tabulated the list of best guides for CBSE Class 10 Science. You can choose any textbook out of these as all of them are equally authentic. 

Name of Best Science Books for Class 10


Chapter-wise Solutions

Science Textbook

Lakhmir Singh & Manjit Kaur

Click here

Together With Science 

Rachna Sagar Pvt Ltd

Click here

All In One Science

Arihant Publications

Click here

Self-Study in Science

Evergreen Publications

Click here

Xam Idea Complete Course Science

VK Publications

Click here


Frequently Asked Questions

  • Which is the best guide book for CBSE Class 10 Science?

    One should start his or her preparation from NCERT Class 10th Science Solutions and then pick a reference book for further practice. Below is the list of recommended books for Class 10th CBSE Science subject. 

    • Lakhmir Singh Class 10 
    • All In One Class 10 Science
    • Evergreen Class 10 Science
    • Together With Class 10 Science
    • Xam Idea Class 10 Science
  • How to prepare for Class 10th CBSE Science exam?

    NCERT Class 10th Science book consists of 16 chapters in total. When preparing for CBSE Class 10 Science Board exam, you should follow the pointers given below for effective preparation. 

    • When studying the chapters, underline the important definitions and paragraphs. 
    • Circle the topics in which you are facing a doubt to resolve it later.
    • Study the derivations so that you can understand the concept of a formula clearly. 
    • Solve examples and in-between questions of NCERT Science textbook in parallel with reading the chapter. 
    • Practice diagrams and go through their labelling carefully.
    • Next, solve the questions present at the end of each chapter.
    • Having understood the basic concepts, you must practice questions from a Science reference book. The list of best books for CBSE Class 10 Science is indicated above.
  • How to score good marks in Science Class 10 CBSE?

    To stay ahead in the competition, you must revise important definitions, formulas, derivations, and diagrams on a regular basis. This way, you will save time for working on your weak areas before the exam date. This approach can guarantee your success and help you achieve a good score in Class 10th Science.

  • Which is the best reference book for Class 10 CBSE Science?

    Goprep’s subject experts have provided the list of best reference books for CBSE Class 10 Science above.

  • How to good full marks in Class 10 Science?

    Getting good marks in almost every subject requires your best efforts in the form of dedication, hard work, and smart work. Regularity towards exam preparation defines dedication, working on your areas of improvement defines hard work, and studying according to the CBSE syllabus and marking scheme defines smart work.