A. Positive radicals
Positively charged ions are called cations.
Examples:- NH4 + ,K + ,Fe + 2,Al + 3
B. Basic radicals
The cationic radicals are called basic radicals. Basic radicals are formed by removal of electrons from the atoms of metals.
Example: Na + , Cu2 + ,Ag + ,Mg + 2,Au + 3
C. Composite radicals
When a radical is a group of atoms carrying a charge, it is called composite radical.
NO3-, ClO3- , SO42-, NH4 + , MnO4-
D. Metals with variable valency
Under different conditions, the atoms of some elements give away or take up different numbers of electrons. In such cases, those elements exhibit more than one valency. This property of elements is called variable valency.
Iron (Fe) exhibits the variable valencies 2 and 3: Fe2 + and Fe3 +
Gold(Au) exhibits the variable valencies 1 and 3: Au + and Au3 +
Copper(Cu) exhibits the variable valencies 1 and 2: Cu + and Cu2 +
Mercury(Hg) exhibits the variable valencies 1 and 2: Hg + and Hg2 +
E. Bivalent acidic radicals
Bivalent refers to an element whose atom can replace 2 atoms of hydrogen or another univalent element. It also refers to a radical that has the same valence as a bivalent atom.
Examples: SO42-, CO32-, C2O42-
F. Trivalent basic radicals
A trivalent basic radical is a cation that has a valency of three. Examples of trivalence basic radicals are Al3 + ,Cr3 + , Bi3 + and Fe + 2
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