Answer :

The history of the southern part of India covers a span of over four thousand years. This region saw the rise and fall of a number of dynasties and empires. The period of the known history of the region begins with the Iron age (1200 BCE to 24 BCE) period. Until the 14th century CE. dynasties of Satavahana, Chola, Chera, Chalukya, Pallava, Rashtrakuta, Kakatiya and Hoysala were at their peak during various periods of history. The Pallavas, Cholas, and Pandyas shared the power in the Tamil Country. Cheras ruled Kerala and Chalukyas ruled Karnataka. The descriptions of the southern states are as follows:

1) PALLAVAS


1) During the reign of Pallavas, Kanchi became a great center of Brahmanical and Buddhist learning.


2) Many of the famous temples were built


3) Pallava artists from Kanchi helped to build great temples in Cambodia and Java.


2) CHALUKYAS


1) The Chalukyas came to power in Karnata or the Canarese speaking country in the 6th century AD with Vatapi (present Badami) as capital.


2) The real creator of the dynasty was Pulikesin one who performed 'aswamedha yaga' to access to power.


3) Pulikesin II (609-642) consolidated his power in Maharastra and conquered nearly the whole of Deccan.


4) By 753 AD, Vikramaditya II, the Chalukya king was overthrown by Dandidurga and laid the basis for a new empire called Rastrakutas.


3) RASTRAKUTAS


1) The Rastrakutas Empire extended from south Gujarat, Malva, and Baghalkhand in the north to Tanjore to the south.


2) In 973 Tailia II, a descendent from the early Chalukyas overthrew the dynasty.


4) CHOLAS


1) By 850 AD, Cholas had risen to power and ruling the south Tamil Country from Tanjore.


2) Under Rajaraja I (985-1018) and his son Rajendra Chola I (1018-1048) Cholas conquered the whole of Tamil Country.


3) They went as far as the Ganges and asserted their power over Ceylon, Nicobar Islands, parts of the Malay Peninsula and the Indian Archipelago.


4) Rajendra Chola defeated Manipala one of Bengal.


5) He also conquered Chalukyas at Musangi.


6) The Pandyas annexed the southern part of the empire. In the country between the Godavari and the Ganges rose the empires of Kalinga and Orissa.


7) The Chola Empire declined after Rajendra Chola Kulathunga.


5) PANDYAS


1) Pandyas occupied the present Madurai and Thirunelveli District with part of old Travancore.


2) They excelled in trade and learning.


3) A Pandya king sent a representative to the Roman Emperor Augustus in the first century BC.


4) The Pandya kingdom rose to fame during the 13th century.


5) Kafur conquered the kingdom in the early 14th century.


6) Vijayanagara Empire absorbed it after a brief period.


7) In 1328 Hoysala Empire was conquered by Mohamed Bin Tughluq.


8) After the withdrawal of Tughluq, Vijayanagar Empire and Bahmani Sultanate were founded in the south.


The states in south India were strong with its own characteristics. Of them, the Cholas and the Chalukyas were important. They have their story of triumph, legacy, and invasions.


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