Q. 1

Show the distribution of the different biomes on the outline map of the world with a note highlighting the important characteristics of each biome.

Answer :

Characteristics of each biomes are:

*Tundra: Tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. It is coldest of all biomes. It is known for large stretches of bare ground and rock and for patchy mantles of low vegetation such as mosses, lichens, herbs and small shrubs. Climates vary considerably. Temperatures fluctuate from 4 degree celsius in midsummer to -32 degree celsius during the winter months in the Arctic region. Tundra soils are classified as Gelisols or Cryosols.

*Northern Coniferous forest: It is also known as boreal forest or taiga. Compare to tundra it has warmer season. Soil moisture is high. The diversity of tree species is quite low. Evergreen conifers like pine, fur etc are present.

*Tropical Rainforest: It is a hot, moist biome where it rains all year long. It is known for its dense canopies of vegetation that form three different layers. It receive 60 to 160 inches of precipitation that is fairly evenly distributed throughtout the year. Temperature is 20- 25 degree that is evenly distributed.

Temperate deciduous forest: It is also known as temperate broad leaf forests. They lose their leaves each year. They are found in areas with warm moist summers and cool winters.

*Mountains: Mountains are a large landform that rises above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak. Temperature and precipitation vary depending upon latitudinal zone. Higher elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level.

*Tropical Grassland (Savanna Biome): The climate in savanna biome varies depending on the season. It has a distinct wet and dry season. The savanna biome has a characteristics range of 68 to 86 degree Fahrenheit or 20 to 30 degree Celsius.

*Temperate Grassland: It has hot summers and cold winter. Rainfall is 500-900 mm. It has thin flocculated soil rich in bases.

*Desert: Deserts are formed by weathering processes. They get less than 25 cm of rainfall a year. It is a very dry biome.

*Chaparral: It is a shrubland. It is found in regions with a climate similar to that of the Mediterranean area, characterized by hot, dry summers and mild, wet winters.

*Tropical Scrub Forest: Tropical scrub forest is one of the biomes that make up aridland. It is an area of little precipitation, plenty of continuous winds and medium to poor soil quality.

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