# HC Verma Class 12 Physics Solutions

Share**HC Verma Solutions Part-2 (Physics)** is preferred study material for students who wish to score 90+ marks in Physics Class 12 Board exam. Concepts of Physics by HC Verma is not only favorable from exam perspective but also helpful while you prepare for competitive exams like JEE and NEET. The main highlight of HCV Solutions Volume 2 is that you get a step-by-step explanation for all the questions.

Although NCERT textbooks are considered the best study resources for any subject, HC Verma Part-2 Physics is an exceptional case. It helps you strengthen your basic concepts and provide you with an ample amount of practice. This textbook covers detailed explanation about all the topics of each chapter covered in the CBSE syllabus.

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**HC Verma Class 12 Solutions (Physics) **

**Chapter 23: Heat and Temperature**

In Chapter-23 of HC Verma Class 12 Physics textbook, you will study the concept of convection in which heat gets transferred from warmer to colder end. Next, the principle of calorimetry states that when two bodies of varying temperature are mixed with each other, the temperature of the mixture becomes constant.

Recall from earlier classes, you have studied that latent heat is either absorbed or released when a body undergoes a change in its state. You will realise that there is no change of external work done, pressure or volume during the change of temperature in solids or liquids. In the case of gases, you will see a significant change in the pressure or volume of the gases.

The last topic introduces you to concepts of molar heat capacity and molar specific heat. The amount of heat supplied to raise the temperature of 1 mole of a gas is termed as molar heat capacity.

**List of Topics in Chapter 23 “Heat and Temperature”**

- Concept of Heat Energy
- Principle of Calorimeter
- Latent Heat
- Latent Heat of Fusion
- Latent Heat of Vaporisation
- Specific Heat of Gases
- Molar Heat Capacity

Chapter 24: Kinetic Theory of Gases

Chapter 24: Kinetic Theory of Gases

Let us first discuss the kinetic theory of matter that talks about the movement of particles in solids, liquids, and gases. You have already learnt that the force of attraction between two molecules is maximum in solids and minimum in gases.

The following topic discusses the concept of an ideal gas, which is hypothetical in nature, i.e. the size of particles and the force of attraction between any two molecules is negligible. Further, you will study the ideal gas equation that shows the relation between the pressure, temperature, and volume of an ideal gas.

When you solve the numerical of this chapter, formulas of the gas constant, Van Der wall’s equation, Avogadro’s number, and Gas Laws will come into use.

**List of Topics in Chapter 24 “Kinetic Theory of Gases”**

- Kinetic Theory of Matter
- Ideal Gas and Ideal Gas Equation
- Gas Constant
- Universal Gas Constant (R)
- Specific Gas Constant (r)
- Real Gas
- Van Der Waals Equation of State for a Real Gas
- Avogadro’s Number (N)
- Gas Laws
- Boyle’s Law
- Gey Lussac’s Law
- Gey Lussac’s Law of Pressure
- Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure
- Graham's Law of Diffusion
- Avogadro’s Law
- Pressure of a Gas
- Root Mean Square Velocity of the Gas
- Regnault’s Law
- Graham’s Law of Diffusion
- Distribution of Molecular Speeds
- Degree of Freedom
- Mean Energy

Chapter 25: Calorimeter

Chapter 25: Calorimeter

As you have already studied the principle of calorimeter in Chapter-23 of HC Verma Class 12 Physics, you will find this chapter easier to understand. The initial topic of Chapter-25 will make you thorough with the application of ‘specific heat of solid, liquid, and gas’.

Proceeding further, you will study the definitions of thermal capacity and latent heat. Later in this chapter, you will find out that the value of water equivalent to a body is similar to its heat capacity.

When it comes to solving the numerical, you will frequently be using the formulas of molar heat capacity, molar specific heat, and specific heat for adiabatic and isothermal processes. Also, study other important formulas, including thermal capacity and heat capacity of a body in terms of angle.

**List of Topics in Chapter 25 “Calorimeter”**

- Specific Heat
- Thermal Capacity
- Water Equivalent of a Body
- Latent Heat

Chapter 26: Laws of Thermodynamics

Chapter 26: Laws of Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is a field of physics in which you will study the transformation of heat energy into other forms of energy and vice-versa. A thermodynamic system is studied at the macroscopic level, i.e. you will study about bulk systems only.

The main highlight of HC Verma Class 12 Physics Chapter-26 ‘Laws of Thermodynamics’ is its three laws of thermodynamics- the zeroth, first, and the second law. Next, you will cover the definitions of heat, work and internal energy in the context of a thermodynamic system.

In the latter half of this chapter, you will come across the expression specifying the relation between molar specific heat Cp and CU. Also, know about the state variables or parameters that tell the equilibrium states of the system.

**List of Topics in Chapter 26 “Laws of Thermodynamics”**

- Thermal Equilibrium
- Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
- Heat, Work, and Internal Energy
- First Law of Thermodynamics
- Thermodynamic State Variables
- Equation of State
- Thermodynamic Processes
- Quasi-Static Processes
- Isothermal Process
- Adiabatic Process
- Reversible Process
- Second Law of Thermodynamics
- Refrigerator

**Chapter 27: Specific Heat Capacities of Gases**

In this chapter, you will get to understand the concept of specific heat capacity in detail. As discussed above in Chapter-23, you defined molar heat capacity as the quantity of heat supplied to increase the temperature of 1 mole of the gas.

Further, you will learn to calculate the molar specific heat capacity at constant volume and pressure. The last topic of Chapter-27 HC Verma Volume 2 Physics tells you that internal energy stored in a system is due to molecular motion and molecular configuration.

Besides, there are some important relations without which you will not be able to solve the numerical. For instance, the relation between heat capacity and specific heat is one such important expression. Below is the list of topics that are part of this chapter.

**List of Topics in Chapter 27 “Specific Heat Capacities of Gases”**

- Specific Heat Capacity
- Molar Specific Heat Capacity of a Gas at Constant Volume
- Molar Specific Heat Capacity of a Gas at Constant Pressure
- Specific Heat Capacity of Monatomic, Diatomic, and Triatomic Gases
- Internal Energy

**Chapter 28: Heat Transfer**

At the beginning of the chapter, you will first differentiate between conduction and convection. When a body conducts heat, the flow of heat takes place from the hot end to the cold end. Convection, on the other hand, refers to the flow of heat from one part of a body to another by the actual motion of the heated particles.

Next, you will come across a few more important terminologies, including temperature gradient, coefficient of thermal conductivity, thermal conductance, thermal resistance, etc. Moving forward, this chapter introduces you to Kirchoff’s Law of Heat Radiation, Wien's Displacement Law, Stefan's Law and Newton's Law of Cooling.

Throughout Chapter-28 of HC Verma Part-2 textbook of Physics, you will cover the following topics.

**List of Topics in Chapter 28 “Heat Transfer”**

- Conduction
- Convection
- Radiation
- Temperature Gradient
- Coefficient of Thermal Conductivity
- Thermal Conductance
- Thermal Resistance
- Analogy between Electricity and Heat
- Searle’s Method for K
- Ingen Hausz Experiment
- Thermal Resistance of a Conductor of Length
*d* - Flow of heat through a composite slab
- Thermal Resistance in Series
- Thermal Resistance in Parallel
- Kirchoff’s Law of Heat Radiation
- Wien's Displacement Law
- Stefan’s Law
- Spectral Emissive Power

**Chapter 29: Electric Field and Potential**

Chapter-29 ‘Electric Field and Potential’ discusses the definition, relation, and derivation of electric field and electric potential. Recall from earlier textbooks, electric potential, at any point, can be found by a negative integral of the electric field from infinity to that point.

As you proceed, you will study the relation between the electric field and electric potential. In turn, this will lead you to expressions of potential due to a point charge, charged spherical shell and uniformly charged non-conducting sphere.

Recollect important terminologies from the past, including conductors, insulators, the capacity of a parallel plate capacitor, etc. There are a lot of formulas in this chapter that will test your conceptual knowledge when you apply them in numerical.

**List of Topics in Chapter 29 “Electric Field and Potential”**

- Electric Potential
- Relation between Electric Field and Electric Potential
- Potential due to a Point Charge
- Potential at point due to several charges
- Potential due to charged spherical shell
- Potential due to a uniformly charged non-conducting sphere
- Common potential
- Potential at any point due to an electric dipole
- Electric Potential Energy or Work Done of the System
- Electric Potential Energy of an Electric Dipole in an Electric Field
- Conductors, Insulators, and Capacity
- Capacity of an Isolated Spherical Conductor
- Capacity of a Parallel Plate Capacitor
- Effect of Dielectric on the Capacitance of a Capacitor

Chapter 30: Gauss’s Law

Chapter 30: Gauss’s Law

Chapter-30 of HC Verma Class 12 Physics entirely revolves around Gauss’s law. This law shows the relation between an electric field and circulation of charge in the system. Mathematically, Gauss law is the ratio of net electric flux to the electric charge.

Having understood the principle of Gauss’s law, you will now derive its formula, which will make you understand its core concept. Also, go through the points that you take into consideration while applying Gauss’s law. Finally, the chapter discusses the application and significance of Gauss’s law.

**List of Topics in Chapter 30 “Gauss’s Law”**

- Gauss’s Law
- Proof of Gauss’s Law
- Significance of Gauss’s Law

Chapter 31: Capacitors

Chapter 31: Capacitors

In Chapter-31 ‘Capacitors’, you will study the role of a capacitor in appliances, capacitance, and construction of a capacitor. You can build a capacitor with the help of two electrical conductors that are separated by a dielectric.

As you delve deeper into this chapter, you will read about the role of non-conducting dielectric in a capacitor. The list of non-conducting dielectric materials includes mica, glass, paper, etc. Further, study the series and parallel connection of capacitors.

Next, you will study the properties of a capacitor, which includes leakage current, nominal capacitance, tolerance, and working voltage. Know about supercapacitor and its classification, effect of dielectric on the capacitance of a capacitor, and energy stored in a capacitor nearing the conclusion of Chapter 31.

**List of Topics in Chapter 31 “Capacitors”**

- Capacitor
- Capacitance
- Construction of a Capacitor
- Role of Non-Conducting Dielectric in Capacitor
- Capacitors in Series and Parallel Arrangement
- Capacitor Rating
- Properties of Capacitor
- Supercapacitor and its Classification
- Parallel Plate Capacitor
- Effect of Dielectric on Capacitance of Capacitor
- Energy Stored in a Capacitor

Chapter 32: Electric Current in Conductors

Chapter 32: Electric Current in Conductors

You are already familiar with the term ‘electric current’, which refers to the flow of charges in a conductor. Mathematically, it is defined as the ratio of the rate of flow of electric charge through a conductor. Next, you will cover the basic terminologies covered in earlier Science textbooks, such as drift velocity, resistance, conductance, etc.

One of the easiest numerical problems is generally given from arrangement of resistance in series and parallel. When a series and a parallel arrangement are grouped into one circuit, it is called a grouping of cells.

In the latter half of Chapter-32, you will learn to calculate electromotive force and potential difference of a cell. Numerical problems are also based on key formulas, including those of electric power, electric energy, heating effect of current, etc.

**List of Topics in Chapter 32 “Electric Current in Conductors”**

- Current and its Unit
- Drift Velocity
- Ohm’s Law for Conductors
- Resistance and its Unit
- Variation of Resistance with Temperature
- Variation of Resistivity with Temperature
- Conductivity
- Conductance
- Current Density
- Relation between Current Density and Electrified
- Resistance in Series and Parallel
- Electromotive Force and Potential Difference
- Internal Resistance of a Cell
- Electric Power and Energy

**Chapter 33: Thermal and Chemical Effects of Electric Current**

The differences between conductors and insulators have already been discussed numerous times in the past. HC Verma Volume 2 Chapter-33 then provide an explanation regarding how liquids conduct electricity.

Know why LED bulbs are more preferable when testing the electrical conductivity of liquids. Next comes the process of electrolysis, in which constituents of a compound gets broken down on passing the electric current. Later, various familiar terms such as anode, cathode, anions, cations, electrolyte and electrode will come into the picture.

Further, you will study the four effects of an electric current- chemical, heating, magnetic, and mechanical. Chapter-33 of HC Verma Class 12 Physics Solutions extensively discusses the chemical effects of electric current. Nearing conclusion, four applications of chemical effects have been discussed briefly.

**List of Topics in Chapter 33 “Thermal and Chemical Effects of Electric Current”**

- Conductors and Insulators
- How do Liquids Conduct Electricity?
- Why LED Bulbs are more favorable for testing the electrical conductivity of liquids?
- Electrolysis
- Chemical Effects of Electric Current
- Applications of Chemical Effects of Electric Current
- Electroplating
- Process of Electroplating
- Applications of Electroplating
- Other Applications of Chemical Effect of Electric Current
- Extraction of Metals from their Ores
- Purification of Metals
- Production of Compounds
- Decomposition of Compounds

**Chapter 34: Magnetic Field**

In Chapter-34, you will study that magnetic field, of any magnetic dipole is the area around it within which the magnetic effect can be felt. Next comes the concept of magnetic dipole and magnetic moment. You can calculate the magnetic moment of a magnetic dipole by finding the product of pole strength and the magnetic length.

Other key formulas of the chapter involve the calculation of magnetic flux density at a distance from a magnetic dipole, magnetic intensity due to a bar magnet, to name a few. There are three types of magnetic substances- diamagnetic, paramagnetic, and ferromagnetic substances.

Another important formula of this chapter is magnetic flux that can be calculated using the product of area and perpendicular component. Biot-Savart Law, alternatively known as Ampere’s theorem, along with Lorentz force and Ampere’s current law are three major theorems of the chapter.

**List of Topics in Chapter 34 “Magnetic Field”**

- Magnetic Field
- Characteristics of Magnetic Lines of Force
- Magnetic Dipole and Magnetic Moment
- Magnetic Intensity
- Combined Magnetic Field due to bar magnet
- Relation between Permeability and Susceptibility
- Magnetic Substances
- Curie-Weiss Law
- Magnetic Flux
- Biot-Savart Law/ Ampere’s Theorem
- Lorentz Force
- Fleming’s Left Hand Rule
- Moving Coil Galvanometer
- Ampere’s Current Law
- Cyclotron
- Magnetic Field Produced by a Moving Charge

**Chapter 35: Magnetic Field due to a Current Carrying Conductor**

As you have previously read, the magnetic field is the region within which the magnetic effect can be experienced. Magnetic force originates from moving charges or some magnetic material. H.C. Oersted in early 19th century found out that a current-carrying conductor is responsible for producing magnetic effect around it.

Next, you will study how a current-carrying conductor produces a magnetic field around it. The magnetic field is a vector quantity as it represents both magnitude and direction. At the end of Chapter-35 “Magnetic Field due to a Current-Carrying Conductor” of HC Verma Part-2, you will study five characteristics of the magnetic field.

**List of Topics in Chapter 35 “Magnetic Field due to a Current”**

- Magnetic Field Due to Current Carrying Conductor
- Characteristics of Magnetic Field Due to Current Carrying Conductor

Chapter 36: Permanent Magnets

Chapter 36: Permanent Magnets

Chapter-36 ‘Permanent Magnets’ provides you in-depth knowledge about magnets that can retain their magnetism for a considerable amount of time. A bar magnet is a perfect example of a permanent magnet as it will help you understand the behaviour of magnets.

Next, you will understand the construction of an electromagnet. To prepare an electromagnet, you need to connect a battery with a nail surrounded by a solenoid. This setup acts as a magnet because the magnetic field is produced due to the current flowing through the coil.

Further, you will learn to differentiate between a bar magnet and an electromagnet. This chapter also covers similarities, advantages and disadvantages of both types of magnets. The last segment of the chapter introduces you to types of permanent magnets and applications of electromagnets.

**List of Topics in Chapter 36 “Permanent Magnets”**

- Permanent Magnets
- Electromagnets
- Difference between Bar Magnet and Permanent Magnet
- Similarities between Permanent Magnets and Electro-Magnets
- Advantages of Electromagnets over Permanent Magnets
- Disadvantages of Electro-Magnets
- Types of Permanent Magnets
- Applications of Electromagnets

**Chapter 37: Magnetic Properties of Matter**

In this chapter, you will first study whether permanent magnets can be made from paramagnetic materials or not. Next, you will learn to classify the magnets based on their behaviour. They can be either diamagnetic, ferromagnetic or paramagnetic.

As you proceed, you will understand the logic behind why electromagnets are made from soft iron. Favorable retentivity and coercive force are two main factors that make the soft iron a better choice.

In the latter half of Chapter-37 HC Verma Volume 2 Physics, you will study about the changes observed in a ferromagnetic material when it goes through a hysteresis loop. You will notice a change in its magnetic susceptibility. Also, find out the list of materials for which the magnetic susceptibility is negative.

**List of Topics in Chapter 37 “Magnetic Properties of Matter”**

- Magnetization of Materials and Intensity of Magnetization
- Behaviour of Magnets- Paramagnetism, Ferromagnetism and Diamagnetism
- Magnetic Intensity and Susceptibility
- Permeability
- Curie’s Law
- Hysteresis
- Soft Iron and Steel

Chapter 38: Electromagnetic Induction

Chapter 38: Electromagnetic Induction

Electromotive force is defined as the source of energy which allows electrons to flow in the electric circuit. In the beginning of Chapter-38 ‘Electromagnetic Induction’, you will learn how an emf is induced in the metallic loop when it is placed in a non-uniform magnetic field.

Proceeding further, this chapter discusses the energy density in a solenoid at its centre or along with its endpoints. Get answers to some important questions, including impact on a bar magnet after it is released from rest along the axis of a long, vertical copper tube.

**List of Topics in Chapter 38 “Electromagnetic Induction”**

- Faraday’s Law
- Lenz’s Law
- Induced emf
- Eddy Current
- Self Induction
- Growth and Decay of Current
- Energy Stored in an Inductor
- Mutual Induction
- Induction Coil

**Chapter 39: Alternating Current**

Alternating current is identified by a change in its magnitude and polarity at regular intervals. In other words, when the direction of the flowing current reverses back and forth at regular intervals, it is called alternating current.

As you proceed, you will learn to calculate the power rating of an element in ac circuits. Know how you can represent voltage and current in the form of vectors in a phasor diagram, irrespective of that they are scalar quantities.

Inductors and capacitors are elements that do not dissipate energy, while the resistive element is the only element that is associated with power losses. Also, study how you can measure the power factor in an RLC circuit.

**List of Topics in Chapter 39 “Alternating Current”**

- AC Generator or AC Dynamo
- Instantaneous and RMS Current
- Simple AC Currents
- Vector Method
- AC Circuits
- Choke Coil
- Hot Wire Instruments
- DC Dynamo and Motor
- Transformer

**Chapter 40: Electromagnetic Waves**

In Chapter-40, you will find out that there are various types of electromagnetic waves. You can differentiate these waves based on their wavelength or frequencies since all of them travel through a vacuum with the same speed. When charged particles accelerate, they emit electromagnetic waves.

Further, you will study how electromagnetic waves can be detected by different means. Also, study the difference between infrared waves and visible light based on their frequencies. Infrared waves are considered as heat waves as vibration caused due to movement of atoms or molecules increases the internal energy and temperature of the substance.

**List of Topics in Chapter 40 “Electromagnetic Waves”**

- Maxwell’s Displacement Current
- Continuity of Electric Current
- Maxwell’s Equations and Plane Electromagnetic Waves
- Energy Density and Intensity
- Momentum
- Electromagnetic Spectrum and Radiation in the Atmosphere

Chapter 41: Electric Current through Gases

Chapter 41: Electric Current through Gases

In chapter 41, you will study how gases can conduct electricity. Gases are poor conductors of electricity as they do not have free electrons present in them. However, when the gaseous particles are ionized, then they can conduct electric charges.

Moving forward, you will understand the process of ionization in detail. An atom becomes positively charged when an electron is forcibly taken away from gas. As a result, there will be the presence of both electrons and positively charged particles that would allow conduction of current.

In the latter half of the chapter, explore different ways of ionization and distinguish three states of matter based on presence of free electrons. Below is the list of topics that you will cover in Chapter-41 of HC Verma Volume 2 Solutions.

**List of Topics in Chapter 41 “Electric Current through Gases”**

- Gases as Current Carriers
- Ionization Process
- Different Ways of Ionization

**Chapter 42: Photoelectric Effect and Wave-Particle Duality**

Chapter-42 begins with the introduction of the photoelectric effect. In this phenomena, when incident light falls on metals, then negatively charged particles are emitted. Get an introduction to new definitions such as stopping potential, saturation current, etc.

The second half of the chapter deals with the concept of wave-particle duality. It was Louis de Broglie who proposed that any particle with some momentum will also have a particular wavelength.

By the end of this chapter, you will also get to know about Planck’s hypothesis of the quantum theory, Einstein’s theory of photoelectric effect, and classical wave theory. All in all, this chapter covers the following topics.

**List of Topics in Chapter 42 “Photoelectric Effect and Wave-Particle Duality”**

- Einstein and the Photoelectric Effect
- Experimental Setup to Study Photoelectric Effect
- Wave Particle Duality
- Planck’s Hypothesis of the Quantum Theory
- Einstein’s Theory of the Photoelectric Effect

Chapter 43: Bohr’s Model and Physics of the Atom

Chapter 43: Bohr’s Model and Physics of the Atom

Chapter-43 of HC Verma introduces you to three postulates of Bohr’s atomic model. This model is an improvement over Rutherford’s atomic model. According to the first postulate, atoms are said to sustain stationary states where electrons revolve around the nucleus without emitting radiation.

The second postulate explains the revolution of electrons in stable orbits. The third postulate is associated with emission of photons due to the energy difference between the two energy states. Proceeding ahead, you will read about Bohr’s radius and learn to calculate the velocity of electrons in orbit.

**List of Topics in Chapter 43 “Bohr’s Model and Physics of the Atom”**

- Postulates of Bohr’s Model
- Bohr’s Radius
- Velocity of Electron in the Orbit

Chapter 44: X-rays

Chapter 44: X-rays

In Chapter-44 ‘X-Rays’, you will learn about the discovery of x-rays and also study their working. These rays have high energy radiation with very short wavelengths. You must have heard that exposure to high levels of x-rays could be harmful.

Next, understand the production of x-rays with the help of an experiment. Also, go through the various properties of these radiations. The last topic of this chapter discusses the characteristic equation, Moseley’s law and Bragg’s law. Check out the list of contents of this chapter below.

**List of Topics in Chapter 44 “X-rays”**

- Working of X-Rays
- How Safe are the X-Rays?
- Experimental Production of X-Rays and the Bragg Spectrometer
- X-Ray Production
- Properties
- Characteristic Equation

Chapter 45: Semiconductors and Semiconductor Devices

Chapter 45: Semiconductors and Semiconductor Devices

First of all, you will study about thermionic emission, which is the process of emission of electrons by a metal containing free electrons. To calculate thermionic current density, you will learn to imply the Richardson equation.

Further, the chapter discusses the three types of energy bands, namely valence energy, forbidden energy and conduction energy bands. Then figure out the cause behind the formation of the energy gap.

As you proceed, you will learn to differentiate between conductors, semiconductors and insulators. Next comes the two types of semiconductors- intrinsic and extrinsic. Study the functioning of a diode, full and half-wave rectifier, triode and transistor briefly in this chapter.

**List of Topics in Chapter 45 “Semiconductors and Semiconductor Devices”**

- Thermionic Emission
- Richardson Equation
- Types of Energy Bands in a Solid
- Energy Gap
- Types of Solids
- Types of Semiconductors
- Diode
- Rectifier
- Triode
- Cut-off Voltage
- Triode as an Oscillator
- Electrical Conductivity of Semiconductors
- Transistor

Chapter 46: The Nucleus

Chapter 46: The Nucleus

Nuclear Physics is a branch of physics that is associated with the study of the nucleus and its components. Chapter-46 begins with the introduction of components and properties of the nucleus. Then, you will come across three important terminologies, which are isotopes, isobars and isotones.

Later, you will gather knowledge about the nature of nuclear force and the concept of binding energy. Next comes the study of radioactivity and radioactive elements in which you will cover definitions like alpha decay, beta decay and gamma decay.

Laws of radioactivity is the main highlight of the chapter as the remaining part is wholly based on them. Cover key terminologies such as half-life, average life, nuclear fission, chain reaction, etc. At the end of HC Verma Class 12 Physics Chapter-46, ensure that you understand the classification of nuclear reaction thoroughly.

**List of Topics in Chapter 46 “The Nucleus”**

- Nuclear Physics
- Components and Properties of Nucleus
- Isotopes, Isobars and Isotones
- Nature of Nuclear Force
- Binding Energy
- Radioactivity
- Alpha, Beta and Gamma Decay
- Laws of Radioactivity
- Half-Life and Average Life
- Relation between Curie and Rutherford
- Nuclear Fission
- Chain Reaction
- Nuclear Reaction and its Classification

**Chapter 47: The Special Theory of Relativity**

Chapter-47 first discusses the frame of reference, inertial and non-inertial frame. A coordinate system whose axes you can suitably choose is said to be a frame of reference. An inertial frame is a frame of reference either at rest or moving with zero acceleration. A non-inertial frame, on the other hand, moves with uniform linear acceleration.

Next, you will study four equations of Galilean transformation, which discusses the transformation of position, distance, velocity and acceleration. Recollect the law of conservation of momentum; it states that the total momentum of an isolated system always remains constant.

As you proceed, we will discuss the two postulates of the special theory of relativity. Most important formulas from the numerical point of view are Lorentz transformation equations, relativistic velocity addition theorem, rest mass energy, and relativistic momentum.

**List of Topics in Chapter 47 “The Special Theory of Relativity”**

- Frame of Reference
- Inertial Frame
- Accelerated Frame
- Galilean Transformation
- Law of Conservation of Momentum
- Postulates of Special Theory of Relativity
- Lorentz Transformation Equation
- Lorentz Inverse Transformation Equation
- Relativistic Velocity Addition Theorem
- Mass-Energy Equivalence
- Relativistic Momentum