NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology

NCERT - Biology

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology made available by Goprep act as an indispensable preparation guide. These solutions are prepared by expert teachers; hence they aid students to score well in the exam. The NCERT Biology Class 11 Solutions include the solved questions covered in CBSE Class 11 Biology Textbook.

Since the subject of Biology in CBSE class 11 comprises of a vast syllabus, it gets challenging for students to prepare the whole syllabus within a given time. Therefore, to prepare effectively for the exam, it is important to support your preparation with good study material. Goprep presents NCERT Solutions for Class 11th Biology which enable students to develop a thorough understanding of each topic in the Biology Textbook of Class 11.

NCERT Class 11 Biology Solutions - All Chapters

The CBSE 11th Class Biology not only helps students in their exam preparation rather they also prove useful in preparing for several medical entrance exams. Our subject experts have developed CBSE 11th Class Biology solutions in such a way to aid students to grasp difficult topics with minimum effort and time. We have provided NCERT Biology Class 11 Solutions including all the topics so that you can get deep insight into every topic and solve maximum questions in the exam.

Our NCERT Solutions provide an explanation on all important topics such as Biological Classification, Structural Organization, Cell Division, Biomolecules, Nutrition, Photosynthesis and transport in Plants.

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology (Chapter-wise Description)

Chapter 1- Diversity in the Living World

Introduction: Our planet is a beautiful place consisting of flora and fauna. Biologists and wildlife experts have successfully identified millions of species, but there are a large number of species yet to be found. These living organisms exhibit various major characteristics such as the ability to grow and reproduce, respond to environmental stimuli, metabolise etc. 

In this chapter, you will be given a brief introduction on major characteristics of living organisms such as growth, reproduction, metabolism, and more. You will also learn binomial nomenclature of some common plants and animals. In the latter half of the chapter, you will learn to distinguish between taxonomy and systematics. 

As per the CBSE Class 11 Biology Syllabus, you can expect questions from the following topics in the question paper. 


  • Major Characteristics of Living Organisms
  • Living World: Diversity and Taxonomy
  • Systematics
  • Classification
  • Nomenclature
  • Scientific Names
  • Binomial Nomenclature
  • Taxonomy
  • Taxonomic Categories
  • Intermediate Categories
  • Taxonomical Aids

Chapter 2: Biological Classification

Introduction: In chapter-2 “Biological Classification” of NCERT Class 11 Biology textbook, you will read about the different types of the classification system. Under two- kingdom system, Plantae and Animalia are further classified into its sub-groups. Ernst Haeckel’s three-kingdom system has an added group of Protista, which lack the capability of tissue differentiation. 

On the other hand, the four kingdom classification system includes Monera in addition to Protista, Plantae and Animalia. Further, RH Whittaker’s five kingdom classification system includes Fungi as a separate kingdom. 

Below is the complete list of topics that you will find in this chapter. 


  • Types of Classification
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Plantae
  • Kingdom Animalia
  • Viruses, Viroids, Prions and Lichens

Chapter 3: Plant Kingdom

The kingdom Plantae can be classified into five groups- Algae, Angiosperms, Bryophytes, Gymnosperms, and Angiosperms. Algae are grouped under autotrophs, who have the capability to make their food with the help of chlorophyll. Unlike Algae, Bryophytes are plants which can live in the soil. However, they are dependent on water for sexual reproduction. 

In case of Pteridophytes, the main plant body is a sporophyte which is differentiated into true roots, stem and leaves. Their organs exhibit well-differentiated vascular tissues for transportation of food and water. While Gymnosperms and Angiosperms can be distinguished based on their process of reproduction. 

In short, you will cover the following topics in this chapter of NCERT Class 11 Biology Solutions. 


  • Algae
  • Bryophytes
  • Pteridophytes
  • Gymnosperms
  • Angiosperms
  • Plant Life Cycles and Alternation of Generations

Chapter 4: Animal Kingdom

The classification helps in easy identification of species and enable us to assign a systematic position to them. From our basic understanding of Animal kingdom in earlier NCERT textbooks, all members of Animalia are multicellular, heterotrophic, and eukaryotes. Biologists have studied the animal bodies at four basic levels of structural organization. 

Animals can also be classified based on their symmetry, germ layers, coelom (body cavity), body plan, segmentation, and other important features. In NCERT Class 9 Science textbook, you have learnt that there are four types of tissues in animals; of which skeleton system acts as a protective framework present on the exterior of the body. 

Know about more characteristic features of animals such as mode of reproduction, fertilization etc. Check out the list of topics that you will cover in this chapter. 


  1. Basis of Classification
  • Levels of Organization
  • Symmetry
  • Diploblastic and Triploblastic Organization
  • Coelum
  • Segmentation
  • Notochord
  1. Classification of Animals
  • Phylum- Porifera
  • Phylum- Coelenterata
  • Phylum- Ctenophora
  • Phylum- Platyhelminthes
  • Phylum- Aschelminthes
  • Phylum- Annelida
  • Phylum- Arthropoda
  • Phylum- Mollusca
  • Phylum- Echinodermata
  • Phylum- Hemichordata
  • Phylum- Chordata

Chapter 5: Morphology of Flowering Plants

Angiosperms/ Flowering plants exhibit enormous variation in shape, size, structure, mode of nutrition, life span, and habitat. These plants are characterized by the presence of stems, roots, leaves, flowers and fruits. Due to the presence of meristematic tissues, plants possess the ability to grow from the tips (Apical), the girth (Lateral) and nodes (Intercalary). 

Flowering plants have a well-developed root and the shoot system. Dicotyledonous plants possess tap roots while monocotyledonous plants have fibrous roots. The roots in some plants get modified for storage of food, mechanical support and respiration. Likewise, shoot system also gets modified into other structures to perform diverse functions. 

After studying the entire chapter and studying NCERT Solutions, you will develop an in-depth understanding regarding the topics given below. 


  • The Root
  • The Stem
  • The Leaf
  • The Inflorescence
  • The Flower
  • The Fruit
  • The Seed
  • Semi-technical Description of a Typical Flowering Plants
  • Description of Some Important Families


Chapter 6: Anatomy of Flowering Plants

In this chapter, you will familiarize yourself with the bodily structures of a plant. You have already studied in class 9 that plant tissues are categorised into meristematic (apical, lateral and intercalary) and permanent tissues (simple and complex). Plant tissues show division of labour to perform different functions at the same time, i.e., assimilation of food and its storage, transportation of water and salts, and mechanical support. 

Further, in this chapter, you will study three types of tissue systems- epidermal, ground and vascular. Monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants show variation in their internal structures. 

After studying this chapter, you will familiarize yourself with the following topics. 


  • Tissues
  • Tissue System
  • Anatomy of Dicotyledonous and Monocotyledonous Plants
  • Secondary Growth

Chapter 7: Structural Organization in Animals

A cell is the smallest structural unit of our body. A group of cells combine together to form tissues. Further, a group of tissues together form an organ. Different organs in our body play different roles, which ensures the survival of the body and exhibit division of labour. These organs together form an organ system. 

In total, there are four types of tissues in animals. Epithelial tissues form the inner lining of the body’s surface and its cavities, ducts and tubes. Muscular tissue (striated, non-striated and cardiac) provide locomotion, involuntary actions and rhythmic movement, respectively. 

Connective tissue, like blood, helps in transportation of nutrients and gases, skeletal muscles, gives shape and provide support to the body. Nervous tissues enable us to respond to stimuli. After studying structural organization in humans, you will read the characteristic features of earthworm, cockroach and frog. 

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology of chapter-7 include solved questions from the following topics.


  • Animal tissues
  • Organ and Organ System
  • Earthworm
  • Cockroach
  • Frogs


Chapter 8: Cell- The Unit of Life

A cell is the smallest structural unit of our body; they vary in shape, size and functions. Based on the presence of nuclear membrane and other organelles, cells are classified as eukaryotic or prokaryotic. A typical eukaryotic cell comprises a nucleus, cell membrane and cytoplasm. Unlike animal cells, plant cells have a cell wall in addition to the inner cell membrane. 

The endomembrane system includes the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, lysosomes and vacuoles. Other cell organelles in a eukaryotic cell include ribosomes, mitochondria, and plastids. 

At the end of this chapter, you will find questions based on the following topics.


  • Cell
  • Cell Theory
  • Overview of Cell
  • Prokaryotic Cells
  • Eukaryotic Cells


Chapter 9: Biomolecules

All living organisms show diversity in their chemical composition and metabolic reactions. When it comes to elemental composition, living and non-living tissues appear to be similar when analysed quantitatively. However, it was found that the relative abundance of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen is higher in living systems in comparison to non-living. 

Living organisms have various organic compounds in their bodies, including, amino acids, monosaccharide and disaccharide sugars, fatty acids, glycerol etc. In total, there are 20 types of amino acids and 5 types of nucleotides in a living organism. In addition to this, there are three types of macromolecules- proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides. 

As you delve deeper into this chapter, you will come across important terminologies from the exam perspective and career in genetic engineering. 


  • How to Analyse Chemical Composition?
  • Primary and Secondary Metabolites
  • Biomacromolecules
  • Proteins
  • Polysaccharides
  • Nucleic Acids
  • Structure of Proteins
  • Nature of Bond Linking Monomers in a Polymer
  • Dynamic State of Body Constituents (Concept of Metabolism)
  • Metabolic Basis for Living 
  • The Living State
  • Enzymes


Chapter 10: Cell Cycle and Cell Division

The cell theory suggests that new cells originate from preexisting cells. This process is widely known as cell division. Cell division continues to occur when a zygote undergoes a gradual transformation to become a fully-grown baby and then throughout its life cycle. The stages through which a cell passes from one division to the next is called the cell cycle. 

The cell cycle is divided into two phases, which are Interphase and M phase. In this chapter, you will also come across important terminologies such as Karyokinesis, Cytokinesis, and many more. 

As per the CBSE Syllabus of Class 11 Biology, you will be given questions from the topics mentioned below. 


  • Cell Cycle
  • M Phase
  • Significance of Mitosis
  • Meiosis
  • Significance of Meiosis


Chapter 11: Transport in Plants

Based on the composition, plant tissues are classified into simple and complex permanent tissue. Xylem and Phloem classified under complex tissue, are vascular tissues responsible for transportation of water and food, respectively. Plants absorb a variety of inorganic elements and salts from their roots. 

Water molecules and inorganic substances diffuse from the environment into the plant through a semipermeable membrane. This facilitated transport in plants is called active transport. In passive transport, nutrients move across the membrane by diffusion, without the use of energy. 

After studying the entire chapter, you will get well-versed with the following topics. 


  • Means of Transport
  • Plant-Water Relations
  • Long Distance Transport of Water
  • Transpiration
  • Uptake and Transport of Minerals Nutrients
  • Phloem Transport: Flow from Source to Sink 


Chapter 12: Mineral Nutrition

As discussed in the previous chapter, plants obtain inorganic nutrients from air, water and soil. As per the soil management experts, they absorb a total of 105 mineral elements; of which only 22 of the mineral elements are useful to them. Elements which they require in large quantities are called macronutrients while those required in fewer quantities are called micronutrients. 

In the latter half of this chapter, you will study diseases caused in plants due to deficiency of essential elements. Further, you will realize how important nitrogen is for the sustenance of life. 

When attempting NCERT Biology questions, you must have a thorough understanding of the following topics. 


  • Methods to Study the Mineral Requirements of Plants
  • Essential Mineral Elements
  • Mechanism of Absorption of Elements
  • Translocation of Solutes
  • Soil as Reservoir of Essential Elements
  • Metabolism of Nitrogen 


Chapter 13:  Photosynthesis in Higher Plants

Plants are called autotrophs as they can make their food by the process of photosynthesis. Green plants have a green pigment called chlorophyll in leaves, which enable them to make food in the presence of sunlight and water. To carry out this process, they take in carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through stomatal pores and use it for preparing carbohydrates. 

Further in this chapter, you will find out that mesophylls cells present in leaves have a large number of chloroplasts, which are responsible for fixing carbon dioxide. The process of photosynthesis can be broken down into two stages: the light reaction and the carbon fixing reactions. 

To understand the process of photosynthesis in detail, you need to go through all the topics given below in this NCERT Biology textbook. 


  • Early Experiments
  • Where does Photosynthesis take place?
  • Number of Pigments involved in Photosynthesis
  • Light Reaction
  • Electron Transport
  • Use of ATP and NADPH 
  • C4 Pathway
  • Photorespiration
  • Factors affecting Photosynthesis


Chapter 14: Respiration in Plants

In earlier NCERT textbooks, we have read that animals have special systems for breathing or gaseous exchange. However, plants perform gaseous exchange through stomatal pores (in leaves) and lenticels (in stem). In this chapter, you will read about cellular respiration in detail. 

The process of cellular respiration begins in the cytoplasm. Later, glucose is broken through a series of enzyme catalysed reactions into molecules of pyruvic acid. In eukaryotic organisms, aerobic respiration occurs in the presence of oxygen. Under anaerobic conditions, lactic acid or alcohol fermentation occurs. 

To get into the depth of cellular respiration, you must develop an understanding regarding the following topics.


  • Breathing in Plants
  • Glycolysis
  • Fermentation
  • Aerobic Respiration
  • Respiratory Balance Sheet
  • Amphibolic Pathway
  • Respiratory Quotient 

Chapter 15: Plant Growth and Development

As discussed in earlier chapters of NCERT Class 11 Biology textbook, meristematic tissues are responsible for growth in plants. Meristematic tissues are of three types: Apical meristem, which supports primary growth, i.e., longitudinal growth. Lateral meristem contributes to the elongation in the plant along its girth. Intercalary meristem promotes growth in the nodal axis. 

Intrinsic and extrinsic factors are responsible for plant growth and development. Plant growth regulators are intrinsic factors while factors like light, temperature, nutrition, oxygen status and gravity are external factors. 

This chapter has a total of 11 back-exercise questions based on the following topics. Refer to NCERT Solutions to check your answers for accuracy. 


  • Growth
  • Differentiation
  • Dedifferentiation & Redifferentiation
  • Development
  • Plant Growth Regulators
  • Photoperiodism
  • Vernalisation


Chapter 16: Digestion and Absorption

Our digestive system consists of an alimentary canal and associated digestive glands. The alimentary canal is a pathway for digestion, which consists of the mouth, buccal cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and the anus. The accessory digestive glands release digestive enzymes to convert complex substances into simpler ones. These include salivary glands, the liver and the pancreas. 

When we ingest the food, our teeth masticate the food while saliva released by the salivary gland helps in mixing of food. The food then passes into the pharynx and travels down the oesophagus via peristaltic movement and enter the stomach. Further, when the food enters into the small intestine, digestive enzymes act on proteins, carbohydrates and fats to convert them into simpler substances. 

Master this chapter by practicing NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology made by our experts. 


  • Digestive System
  • Digestion of Food
  • Absorption of Digested Products
  • Disorders of the Digestive System 


Chapter 17: Breathing and Exchange of Gases

In this chapter, you will study the function of the human respiratory system in detail. During the process of respiration, cells utilise oxygen for metabolism and produce energy along with carbon dioxide. During the first step in respiration, we inhale atmospheric air and exhale alveolar air. 

Deoxygenated blood is rich in carbon dioxide, which gets oxygenated after receiving oxygen from the lungs. Once the blood is oxygenated, gaseous exchange takes place between the oxygenated blood and tissues or organs. Lastly, oxygen is utilized by the cells for metabolism. 

To have an in-depth knowledge of this chapter, study the following topics. 


  • Respiratory Organs
  • Mechanism of Breathing
  • Exchange of Gases
  • Transport of Gases
  • Regulation of Respiration
  • Disorders of the Respiratory System

Chapter 18: Body Fluids and Circulation

From your previous knowledge of the connective tissue, you can recall that blood is a fluid connective tissue, which helps in transporting essential substances to the cells. Another fluid, lymph (also called tissue fluid) is also responsible for the transport of certain substances. Blood is composed of a fluid matrix, plasma and other elements. 

There are three types of cells found in blood- red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leucocytes) and platelets (thrombocytes). Blood groups in humans are classified into A, B, AB and O systems based on the presence or absence of two surface antigens. In the latter part of this chapter, you will learn the working of the circulatory system of our body. 

Below is the complete list of topics that are part of this chapter-18. 


  • Blood
  • Lymph (Tissue Fluid)
  • Circulatory Pathways
  • Double Pathways
  • Regulation of Cardiac Activity
  • Disorders of Circulatory System


Chapter 19: Excretory Products and their Elimination

Let us first recall the excretory system that we studied in earlier classes. It comprises a pair of kidneys, a pair of ureters, urinary bladder and urethra. The system as a whole helps in excretion of major nitrogenous wastes such as ammonia, urea and uric acid. In animals other than humans, protonephridia, nephridia, malpighian tubules and green glands are the common excretory organs. 

In the case of humans, each kidney has over a million tubular structures called nephrons. A nephron has two sections- glomerulus and renal tubule. Further, you will learn that urine formation involves three main processes- filtration, reabsorption and secretion. On average, glomerulus filters about 1200 ml of blood per minute to form 125 ml of filtrate in the Bowman’s capsule. 

Once you complete this chapter, you will find a total of 12 questions in the back exercise. These questions are framed from the following topics.


  • Human Excretory System
  • Urine Formation
  • Function of the Tubules
  • Mechanism of Concentration of the Filtrate
  • Regulation of Kidney Function
  • Micturition
  • Role of other Organs in Excretion
  • Disorders of the Excretory System


Chapter 20: Locomotion and Movement

In humans, there are four types of tissues, out of which muscular tissue supports movement and locomotion. Muscular tissues are classified into Striated, Non-Striated and Cardiac Muscles. Striated muscles, also known as voluntary muscles, enable human beings and other animals to move intentionally. 

With the help of these muscles, animals can move from one place to another in search of food, shelter and better climate. This is called locomotion. In appearance, striated muscles show striations (alternate bands). 

Visceral muscles, also known as non-striated muscles, are present in the inner walls of visceral organs and are involuntary in nature. Cardiac muscles are found in the heart, which support the rhythmic movement. Further in this chapter, you will read about muscle fibres and skeletal system. 


  • Types of Movement
  • Muscle
  • Skeletal System
  • Joints
  • Disorders of Muscular and Skeletal System


Chapter 21: Neural Control and Integration

You have already studied epithelial, muscular and connective tissues in the previous chapters. In this chapter, we will discuss the neural system. It consists of two parts: the central neural system (CNS) and the peripheral neural system. Brain and spinal cord are located in the central nervous system. 

The brain is divided into three major parts- the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain. Our sensory organs can detect changes in the environment via signals which are processed and analysed. 

You can develop a thorough understanding of this chapter by studying the following topics. 


  • Neural System
  • Human Neural System
  • Neuron as Structural and Functional Unit of Neural System
  • Central Neural System
  • Reflex Action and Reflex Arc
  • Sensory Reception and Processing


Chapter 22: Chemical Coordination and Integration

The endocrine system consists of the hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, adrenal, pancreas, parathyroid, thymus and gonads. All these glands release special chemicals called hormones that provide chemical coordination, integration and regulation in the human body. Other organs such as the gastrointestinal tract, kidney, heart etc are also responsible for producing hormones. 

Check out the list of topics that will be tested in class 11 Biology exam. You can take help from NCERT Biology Solutions to master the topics given below. 


  • Endocrine Glands and Hormones
  • Human Endocrine System
  • Hormones of Heart, Kidney and Gastrointestinal Tract
  • Mechanism of Hormone action

Benefits of NCERT Class 11 Biology Textbook Solutions

  • Well defined and highly effective solutions for methodical preparation
  • Concepts are explained using easy to understand language.
  • Prepared by qualified teachers having the extensive subject knowledge
  • Detailed and well-researched answers for every question
  • Helpful in scoring better marks in the exam
  • Give students the advantage in understanding practical questions
  • Easily available and are provided free of cost


Final Words

Biology is a subject that needs to be prepared thoroughly in order to score good marks in the exam. However, if you are not able to understand the important topics in the NCERT Class 11 Biology Book, then it can get difficult for you to complete the whole syllabus and perform well in the exam. So, if you want to score well in the Biology exam then it is important that you consider studying using NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology. It can help you cover the maximum syllabus with minimum effort.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • How to prepare for Class 11th Biology?

    As Biology is entirely a theoretical subject, you will have to dedicate hours of study towards learning life processes, terminologies, nomenclature, etc. Below are a few study tips while preparing for Class 11th Biology. 

    • Check the CBSE Class 11 Biology marking scheme above. According to it, Unit-4 (Plant Physiology) and Unit-5 (Human Physiology) carry the maximum weightage of 18 marks each. 
    • Focus on the above-mentioned units the most by practicing all its questions from NCERT Class 11th Biology book. 
    • Study the chapters thoroughly from the textbook and underline the important concepts. 
    • Study all in-text and exercise question answers from NCERT textbook. Take reference from our Class 11th NCERT Biology Solutions in case of any doubt in question-answers. 
    • Refer to Pradeep to attempt extra questions and gain a better understanding regarding the important units such as Cell Structure, Human Physiology, and Plant Physiology. 
    • Practice all the diagrams and learn their labelling carefully.
  • Which is the best platform for NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology?

    NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology made available by Goprep are highly recommended if you want to make an effective preparation for the exam. These solutions are prepared in sync with the recent syllabus of the CBSE Class 11th. Additionally, they comprise of explanations to important questions which are accurate, reliable and pretty easy to understand.

  • How do I revise the whole NCERT Class 11 Biology Textbook in quick time before the exam?

    In case you are finding the whole Class 11th Biology syllabus quite overwhelming to revise before the exam, then you can revise the same through NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology. Since the solutions for the subject are exactly based on the recent curriculum of CBSE, they give a proper understanding of the concepts and help in revising important topics in quick

  • Are NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology endorsed by experts?

    The NCERT Solutions for 11th Class Biology is entirely based on the latest syllabus of the Class 11th Biology. They are prepared by the expert teachers and comprise of easy to understand solutions. Moreover, they are the best way to go about exam preparation. So, in light of these benefits, NCERT Solutions are advised by experts as well.

  • Is solving NCERT Solutions helpful for exam preparation?

    NCERT Solutions for Class 11 prepared by us are aimed at helping students prepare the subject by clearing their concepts and regular revision. Moreover, these solutions explain each topic within the chapters based on the logic which further help students perfect the subject. So, if you are solving the NCERT Solutions for class 11th Biology then you can definitely score better marks in the exam.