Types of Forests in India: Types of Vegetation, Location, Species & Climatic Conditions

Study five different types of forests in India with features and details. Know about tropical evergreen, tropical deciduous, and other forests under classification of forests.

By Mohit ChauhanPublished : Aug 11, 2020 , 10:08 IST
Types of Forests in India: Types of Vegetation, Location, Species & Climatic Conditions

Different types of forests in India account for about 20 per cent of its total land area. We depend on forests for a variety of products, including fuelwood, fodder, fruits, medicines, etc. India features among the ten top countries which have dense forests. 

Madhya Pradesh has the maximum area covered by forests among all the states of India followed by Arunachal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, and Odisha. Based on the predominant vegetation and climatic conditions, there are five major types of forests in India which are thoroughly discussed in this article.

Types of Forests in India

Below are five types of forests found in India which are categorized based on the climatic conditions and type of vegetation. 

1. Littoral and Swamp Forests

Know about the location, climatic conditions, species, and types of Littoral and Swamp forests here. 

Features

Details

Location

These forests are mainly found in reservoirs of the Deccan plateau, saline coast of Gujarat, Gulf of Kutch, Eastern Coast Deltas, lakes, Rajasthan, and swamps in North East India. 

Climatic Conditions

As the title suggests, these forests are found in areas with maximum rainfall. 

Types

Littoral forests can be classified into Beach forests, Tidal Forests, and Fresh Water Swamp Forests. 

Species

Common plants found in Beach forests are Manilkara, Thespesia, Spinifex, Pandanus, Borassus, Nucifera, Phoenix, etc. On the other hand, species found in Freshwater Swamp forests include Acer, Olea, Ficus, Canna, Holoptelia, etc. 

2. Tropical Evergreen and Semi-Evergreen Forests

Study what are Tropical Evergreen and Semi-evergreen forests here. 

Features

Details

Location

Tropical Evergreen forests are found in the hills of the northeastern region, Andaman and Nicobar islands, and the western slope of the Western Ghats. Semi-evergreen forests are found in regions with low rainfall.  

Climatic conditions

Tropical Evergreen forests exist in a hot and humid climate where the annual precipitation is over 200 cm and mean temperature stays above 22°C. Semi-evergreen forests are present in areas that receive low rainfall. 

Structure

Tropical Evergreen forests are well-stratified; have layers close to the ground. They are covered with shrubs and creepers. 

Length of trees

The tress of Tropical Evergreen forests is generally 60 m long or above. 

Species

The species found in Tropical Evergreen forests include Rosewood, Mahogany, Aini, Ebony, etc. In Semi-Evergreen forests, species such as White Cedar, Hollocak, and Kail are found. 

3. Montane Forests

Below we have tabulated the characteristic features of Montane forests along with its types and species. 

Features

Details

Location

Tropical Deciduous forests are found in regions that receive annual precipitation between 70 and 200 cm. 

Climatic Conditions

As indicated above, these forests receive healthy annual rainfall. Therefore, these are also called monsoon forests. 

Types

Based on the availability of water, these forests are categorized into moist and dry deciduous. The moist deciduous forests are found in the regions with rainfall between 100-200 cm. Dry deciduous forests are more pronounced in the areas which record annual rainfall between 70-100 cm. 

Species

The main species found in moist deciduous forests are Teak, Shisham, Sal, Hurra, Amla, Kusum, and Sandalwood. The main species found in dry deciduous forests are Tendu, Amaltas, Bel, Khair, Axlewood, Palas, etc. 

4. Tropical Deciduous Forests

Know where Tropical Deciduous forests are found, what are its types, and the species found in them. 

Features

Details

Location

Tropical Deciduous forests are found in regions that receive annual precipitation between 70 and 200 cm. 

Climatic Conditions

As indicated above, these forests receive healthy annual rainfall. Therefore, these are also called monsoon forests. 

Types

Based on the availability of water, these forests are categorized into moist and dry deciduous. The moist deciduous forests are found in the regions with rainfall between 100-200 cm. Dry deciduous forests are more pronounced in the areas which record annual rainfall between 70-100 cm. 

Species

The main species found in moist deciduous forests are Teak, Shisham, Sal, Hurra, Amla, Kusum, and Sandalwood. The main species found in dry deciduous forests are Tendu, Amaltas, Bel, Khair, Axlewood, Palas, etc. 

5. Tropical Thorn Forests

Go through the features of Tropical Thron forests. Also, study the species found in such forests. 

Features

Details

Location

Tropical Thorn forests are found in semi-arid regions of Gujarat, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, and Uttar Pradesh. 

Climatic Conditions

These forests exist in the regions which receive rainfall less than 50 cm. 

Structure

The plants of these forests appear leafless for the most part of the year. Such forests consist of grasses and shrubs. 

Species

Important species found in Tropical Thorn forests are Babool, Ber, Khair, Neem, Khejri, Palas, Wild Date Palm, etc. 

Remember forests are home to various species of animals and plants, we should prevent cutting of trees excessively. Reduction in green belts has been a major cause of global warming, soil erosion, floods, and pollution. 

Also, read go through additional queries related to types of forests in India below.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • List the types of vegetation in India.

    The words ‘forests’ and ‘vegetation’ are used interchangeably. There are five major categories of forests found in India which are as follows.


    • Tropical Evergreen and Semi-evergreen forests
    • Tropical Thorn forests
    • Tropical Deciduous forests
    • Montane forests
    • Littoral and Swamp forests
  • Name the different types of rainforests.

    There are two types of rainforests which are Tropical and Temperate.

  • What are Tropical Moist Deciduous forests?

    The Tropical Moist Deciduous forests exist in the areas with annual precipitation between 100-200 cm.

  • List the types of forests in Tamil Nadu.

    Below are the types of forests found in Tamil Nadu.


    • Tropical Dry Evergreen
    • Tropical Wet Evergreen
    • Tropical Semi-Evergreen
    • Tropical Moist Deciduous
    • Littoral and Swamp
    • Tropical Dry Deciduous
    • Tropical Thorn 
    • Montane Wet Evergreen

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