Q. 1 C4.1( 10 Votes )
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a) A thermometer is used to measure..........
b) The apparatus used to measure heat is called a .............
c) Temperature is the measure of the ........... kinetic energy of the atoms in a substance.
d) The heat contained in a substance is the measure of the .............. kinetic energy of atoms in the substance.
(a) A thermometer is used to measure temperature.
Explanation: Temperature is the measure of the degree of hotness of an object.
Thermometers can be broadly classified into two based on their working.
1) A thermometer which consists of a liquid (like mercury, alcohol) which easily expands on the increase in temperature.
2) Digital thermometer with a temperature sensor which can measure the amount of heat energy directly.
(b) The apparatus used to measure heat is called a calorimeter.
Explanation: Calorimeter helps to calculate the amount of heat energy absorbed or produced in a physical or chemical process. It works on the principle that the heat transferred or received by a hot or cold object is equal to the heat gained or received by the material of calorimeter and water. By knowing the specific heat capacities of water and material of calorimeter, it is possible to measure the mass and temperature of an object.
(c) Temperature is the measure of the average kinetic energy of the atoms in a substance.
Explanation: Temperature is the measure of the degree of hotness of a body. In an object, each atom or molecules will be at different velocities. So the kinetic energy of each particle will be different. To get an idea of the range of velocities possessed by particles, the concept of the average kinetic energy of particles is used.
(d) The heat contained in a substance is the measure of the total kinetic energy of atoms in the substance.
Explanation: Different kinds of motion are associated with the atoms or molecules in a body. They can undergo rotation, oscillation or translator motion. Each kind of motion has its own contribution to the kinetic energy of the particle. Each kind of motion would produce a particular amount of heat `energy. The total kinetic energy of the particle is the sum of rotational, oscillatory and translational kinetic energy. Therefore, the heat energy of a particle can be taken as the measure of a total kinetic energy of particles in a substance.
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