Q. 93.7( 3 Votes )

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Plant breeding is the procedure that ensures retention of the desired characteristics repeatedly in large populations of future generations of a crop. It refers to the genetic improvement of crop plants. It aims to create and maintain desired plant characteristics such as better yield, disease and pest resistance and increased tolerance to environmental stress. To retain the desired traits in a plant, hybridisation (crossing) of pure lines is carried out, followed by artificial selection.

The main steps followed during plant breeding are:

Collection of variability (germplasm)

Evaluation and selection of parents

Crossing among selected parents

Selection and testing of superior recombinants

Testing, release and commercialisation of new crops

Organisms whose genes are manipulated artificially are referred to as genetically modified organisms. Such genetically modified crops have been useful in many ways.

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