Water is important for proper growth and development of the plants. Thus, the watering of crops at regular intervals is called irrigation. There are two methods of irrigation in India:
(a) Traditional Methods of Irrigation: in traditional methods water is lifted from water sources such as wells, lakes and canals by using human labour or cattle. Traditional methods are cheaper but less efficient. Examples of traditional methods moat (pulley-system), chain pump, dhekli and rahat (Lever system). Pumps are commonly used for lifting water. Pumps run on fuels such as diesel, biogas, electricity and solar energy.
(b) Modern Methods of Irrigation:
Modern methods of irrigation help us to use water economically.
(i) Sprinkler System: In this method perpendicular pipes with rotating nozzles at the end, are joined to the main pipeline at regular intervals. When water flows through the main pipe under pressure, water escapes from the rotating nozzles. It gets sprinkled on the crop as if it is raining.
(ii) Drip system: In this system, the water falls drop by drop directly near the roots of the plants, hence water is not wasted at all. It is the best technique for watering fruit plants, gardens and trees.
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