Write the meaning of green Revolution and describe its major achievements.
Introduction of new technology in Indian agriculture and its expansion programme after the Third 5-Year Plan period was named as Green Revolution. Its main aim was to increase agricultural output and with this vision, several high yielding seed varieties were introduced in the country. These seeds required proper irrigation facilities and extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides and prompted the government to introduce them as a package programme. It initially started with wheat and later extended to rice and other crops. The major achievements of the Green Revolution were:
• Increase in crop production – significant rise in crop production was observed specifically in wheat grain production in the country.
• Increase in employment and income – increase in commercial farming and multiple cropping systems increased the employment for the landless marginal agricultural labourers in the rural areas. This also caused a decrease in rural poverty.
• Modernization of agriculture – high levels of mechanization, used of HYVs, extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides modernized the agricultural production system in the country.
• Import substitution and export promotion – it allowed the country to gain self-sufficiency by lessening import requirements of various crops like oilseeds etc. Excess production has allowed India to also become a reliable exporter of several food grains.
Green Revolution created maximum benefits for the rich farmers who had large farms and the necessary capital for obtaining new technology which also includes farm machinery. Small farmers with even with offers of institutional credits could not avail the economic benefits of the green revolution contributing to high levels of unequal growth in the country.
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