(A) The characteristics of subkingdom phanerogamae.
1. Phanerogams means visible gametes. Flowering or seed bearing plants, most developed plants with roots, stem, leaves.
2. These are divided into two main groups –
1. Gymnos means naked and sperm means seed.
2. Seeds are naked therefore they do not bear true fruit.
3. Evergreen, perennial, woody found mainly on hills.
4. Some plants male and female cones (flowers) on same plant are called dioecious eg: pinus whereas in some on different plants called monoecious eg: cycas.
B) Angiosperms –
1. Angios means cover and sperm means seed.
2. Seeds are covered as true ovary is found. Pollen Grains and ovules are developed in specialized structures called flowers.
3. These are divided into two classes: dicotyledons and monocotyledons.
4. Dicotyledons are characterized by having two cotyledons in their seeds while the monocotyledons have only one.
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