Answer :

Women’s Movement

a) In the beginning of 20th century women organisations were formed at National and local level. The famous among them were Women's India Association, All India Women's Conference, and National Council of Women in India.

b) It is assumed that only middle class educated women were associated with the social movements.

c) In the mid of 1970s there was a renewal of women's movement which was called the second phase of India's women's movement.

d) These were autonomous women's movement that is the women organisations were independent from political parties.

e) The new issues that was focused by these movements were - violence against women, issues of land right, rights against sexual harassment and dowry, recognition of women having equal identity as men.

Tribal Movements

The tribal movements have been largely located in the tribal belt of India. The region that constitutes the main part in tribal movement is Jharkhand and another is North East.

1) Jharkhand tribal movement

i) Jharkhand became a new state in the year 2000 and was separated from Bihar and this was the result of social movement for Jharkhand led by charismatic leader Birsa Munda.

ii) The issues against which the movements in Jharkhand were agitated are –

(a) Acquisition of land for large irrigation project and firing ranges

(b) Survey and settlement operations, which was held up, camps close down etc.

(c) Collection of loan, rent and cooperative dues, which were resisted

(d) Nationalisation of forest produce, which they boycotted

2) North East tribal movement

i) Post-independence the Indian government started state formation and this generated disquieting trends in all major hill district in the region

ii) Due to their distinct identity and traditional autonomy they were unsure of being incorporated with the administrative machinery of Assam

iii) Earlier these tribes were isolated from mainstream of India and they had their own world view and social and cultural Institution, so they were not ready to accept the new system.

The central issue of all tribal movement was the ecological issue. The other issues were cultural issues of identity and economic issues such as inequality.

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