Answer :

i) Roasting:-


a. Roasting is a pyrochemical process in which the ore is heating in the presence of oxygen or in the presence of air below its melting point.


b. The sulphide ores are usually converted into oxides by the process of roasting.


c. The products obtained in this process also are in the solid state.


Example - 2ZnS+3O22ZnO+2SO2


ii) Calcination


a. Calcination is a pyrochemical process in which the ore is heated in the absence of air.


Example – MgCO3 MgO + CO2


iii) Smelting


a. Smelting is a pyrochemical process, in which the ore is mixed with flux and fuel, and then it is strongly heated.


b. During smelting, the impurities (gangue) in the ore react with flux to form a slag which is removed.


c. For haematite ore, coke is used as fuel, and lime stone is used as a flux.


Example- Fe2O3 + 3CO 2 Fe + 3CO2


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