Answer :

(a) It is a chronic bacterial disease and highly infectious. Tuberculosis spreads through air and affects the lungs of the person. It is caused by tubercle The infection spreads by inhalation of droplets expelled by the patient through, sneezing, coughing, yawning, speaking loudly, etc. Through direct contact by the patient(c) Inhalation of fine dust containing tubercle bacilli from sputum and discharges thrown on floor, walls, furniture etc. By consuming contaminated milk, food product, milk product and unpasteurised milk. Infected articles, clothes, utensils, etc. may spread the disease.

The characteristic symptoms occur slowly. Initially, the patient feels easily exhausted and fatigue doing ordinary work and feels excessive weakness. Loss of appetite, hoarseness of throat, pain in the chest due to infected lungs. The cough secretion is tested for the presence of tubercle bacillus. X-ray film shows the extent of infection in the lungs. Patient sweats profusely at night and feels weak. Child should be given B.C.G. (Bacillus Calmette Guerin) vaccine by intradermal injection within the first three months of age.


Polio - Polio can be classified as either symptomatic or asymptomatic (with or without symptoms). About 95 percent of all cases are asymptomatic, and 4-8 percent of cases are symptomatic.


(b) Polio is caused by the poliovirus, a highly contagious virus specific to humans. The virus usually enters the environment in the feces of someone who is infected. In areas with poor sanitation, the virus easily spreads from feces into the water supply, or, by touch, into food. In addition, because polio is so contagious, direct contact with a person infected with the virus can cause polio. Individuals who carry the poliovirus can spread it via their feces for weeks, even if they have shown no symptoms themselves. Once the virus has entered an individual, it infects the cells of the throat and intestine. It takes over the host's cellular machinery and begins to replicate. The virus stays within the intestines, rapidly dividing for a week, before spreading to other areas of the body. Eventually, the virus moves into the bloodstream where it can spread to the entire body. Polio, in its most debilitating forms, displays symptoms such as paralysis and death. However, most people with polio don't display any symptoms or become noticeably sick. When symptoms do appear, they differ depending on the type of polio. There is no cure for polio once a person becomes infected. Therefore, treatments are focused on increasing comfort, managing symptoms, and preventing complications. This can include providing bed rest, antibiotics for additional infections, pain killers, ventilators to help breathing, physiotherapy, and moderate exercise, and a proper diet.


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