Q. 6 A
Answer in paragra
The 73rd and 74th Amendment Acts were passed in 1992, to give more power to local self-governments, and make them constitutional bodies with real authority and control over tasks. In accordance with this, the Act had the following features:
1. The bodies were recognised as institutions of self-governance. This referred to decentralisation of power, to the point that it reached every citizen. It is the most democratic institution.
2. In villages, Gram Sabhas were constituted. These were bodies that consisted over every single voting citizen living in that area. Similar bodies, called Ward Committees were organized in cities. These bodies had the power to take decision on the subjects under the 73rd and 74th Amendment Act, 1992.
3. Three tier system was advocated for Panchayati Raj institutions. The tiers were reduced to 2 or 1, if the population was less than 2 million.
4. There are direct elections to fill seats in all bodies at various levels.
5. Seats are reserved for SCs and STs in all bodies, and even in officiating posts. This reservation is in proportion to the share in population.
6. Seats are also reserved for women. Across the spectrum, one third seats in general seats, reserved seats and officiating posts are reserved for women.
7. Elections are held regularly. The term limit is 5 years, and if the body dissolves before the term expiration, then elections are to be held within 6 months.
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