(i) nitrobenzene → acetanilide
Nitrobenzene is reduced to aniline in the presence of Sn/HCl. The amino group of aniline is then acetylated with acetic anhydride in the presence of pyridine.
(ii) acetanilide → p-nitroaniline
Acetanilide is allowed to react with nirating mixture to form p-Nitroacetanilide. P-nitroacetanilide is then converted to p-nitroaniline by hydrolysis.
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