Answer :

Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian politician, journalist, and activist who aimed for the unification of Italy and lead the Italian revolutionary movement. For the purpose of this answer, we take into consideration Mahatma Gandhi who was also an Indian nationalist and lead the civil disobedience movement in India against the British rulers.


Conversation:


Gandhi – My turning point in life had been the prejudice faced by myself in South Africa owing to my skin colour and country of origin which led me to question the Indian peoples’ standing in the British empire. What can be considered as your turning point?


Mazzini - At the age of sixteen when I was walking one Sunday with my mother, we were stopped by a man who was asking for alms for the refugees of Italy. The scene made a tremendous impression on my mind, and for the first time I felt that the cause of freedom was not a scholastic subject, but one demanding the height of sacrifice.


Gandhi – I was inspired by your young Europe of 1834 to start my Young India Movement. What will you say is the basic principles of the movement?


Mazzini – My La Giovan Europa is an association of men believing in the future of liberty, equality, a fraternity for all mankind.


Gandhi – I have an inherent faith in God. But I am opposed to all forms of sectarianism. Would you agree with this?


Mazzini – of course, I believe in God. My sociology, ethics and political philosophy, as mirrored in my life and writings.... are all derived from my intense religious psychology which hungered and thirsted after righteousness, which could not brook, injustice, inhumanity, and slavery anywhere. In my ‘Duties of man,’ I have shown that every man must learn how to rule himself. How have been able to incorporate this into your philosophy?


Gandhi – I feel that political freedom from British rule is not an end but a necessary step in the entire development of men.


Mazzini and Gandhi despite their similarities in their political thought process had one very distinctive dissimilarity. Mazzini envisaged a strong centralized and Republic Italy opposing decentralization and federalism. But Gandhiji wanted more and more decentralization of power. Though Mazzini’s dream was thwarted with the advent of Italian monarchy in 1870. Like Mazzini, Gandhiji’s dream of Indian unity was defeated with partitioned in 1947, that giving birth to India and Pakistan.


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