Write about the city work, housing and neighbourhoods in colonial India.
Urbanization in colonized India was a slow process that occurred in three presidencies- Madras, Bombay and Calcutta.
City work :
• The three presidencies served as multifunctional cities which had factories, warehouses, trade and also catered people from different professions.
• Bombay emerged as one of the main cities with setting up of cotton mill, industrialization began in the city.
• Bombay also had ports that served as a major outlet for exporting cotton and opium.
• There was an increase in trade in Bombay with the establishment of the railway. Maritime trade also increased.
• The cities have facilities like hospital, educational centres, libraries, etc.
• People belonging from different sectors e.g. business, law, trade, merchants, etc settled in the cities.
Housing and neighbourhood:
• Overcrowding of cities led to unplanned housing. There was a water problem due to such an unplanned settlement.
• Settlements were based on race- native town and white settlement.
• The rich families of merchants and other occupation lived in sprawling bungalows.
• The labour class or poor lived in chawls. Chawls were divided into single-room accommodations with no private toilets.
• High rents of chawls also made people share their small rooms, thus it led to overcrowding a small area.
• Sanitation and hygiene were not at all maintained in these areas.
• Water scarcity also led to an unhygienic way of living.
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