(a) The Preparation of soil is the very first step before growing any crop. It consists of many methods such as turning and breaking the soil so, the roots of the crops are able to breathe it helps in the growth of microbes, earthworms etc, in the soil which provides essential nutrients to the soil. These methods are done using a plough, hoe and cultivators.
(b) Sowing is the most important step in crop production. It is the process of putting the seeds into the soil for growing crops. It can be easily done by a Seed Drill as it saves time and labour. The picture shows seed drilling using a tractor.
(c) Weeds are the unwanted plants that grow along with the crops, which compete with the crops for sunlight, nutrients and water. So, the process of removing these unwanted is called weeding. There are many ways to control adopted the growth of weeds, such as turning of the soil before sowing of crops, physical removal of weeds by uprooting or cutting them close to the ground, using certain chemicals called weedicides etc.
(d) Threshing is the process of separating grains or seeds from chaff. Chaff is the undesirable thing other than the seed or grain. It is done after harvesting the crop. It is usually carried out with the help of a machine known as 'Combine'. This machine is a combined harvester and thresher.
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