Answer :

(a) Chipko Movement in the Himalayas has successfully kept a check on deforestation in several areas. It has also sent a message to the community that afforestation is step to be taken to preserve indigenous species.


(b) There have been attempts made to revive the traditional conservation methods. Parallely, new methods of ecological farming have also been introduced. The groups like "Beej Bachao Andolan" in Tehrii and Navdanya have shown that appropriate production of diversified crops can be done without the use of synthetic chemicals and are also economically viable.


(c) The Joint Forest Management (JFM) provides the platform to involve local communities to help restore the degraded forests. The fundamentals of JFM depend on creating village institutions which undertake the protection activities on degraded forest land, managed by the forest deptt. In return, these local communities are provided the right to intermediary benefits as non-timber produces and share in the timber by successful protection.


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