Answer :

(a) Kulaks: This term was used for the wealthy peasants of Russia. Kulaks had larger farms than most Russian peasants, and they were partially responsible for food shortage in 1927-28 as Stalin believed that Kulaks were indulged in hoarding grains to earn more profits. Stalin later eliminated Kulaks to develop modern farming techniques.

(b) Duma: Duma was Russian assembly which was assigned legislative functions. During the Revolution of 1905, the Tsar elected the first State Duma for the Russian empire.

(c) Women workers between 1900 and 1930: By 1914, more than 30% of women started working in the industries. On 22nd February 1917, many women became the leaders in organizing strikes in factories. This day was later named the International Women's Day. They joined trade unions and political organizations. Women had a major role to play in Russia as they helped the male workers in both revolutions - The February and October Revolution. After the introduction of the new constitution in USSR, the women workers were given equal political, social and economic rights.

(d) Liberals: The Liberals were the group that wanted to change society and wanted a secular nation. They also worked to safeguard the rights of individuals against the government. They advocated for an elected parliamentary government but did not believe in Universal Adult Franchise. They believed only men of property should be given the right to vote. However, they were against giving voting rights to women.

(e) Stalin’s collectivization program: From 1928 to 1940, the Soviet Union of Russia imposed collectivization of agricultural units under the control of Joseph Stalin. It began in 1929 and was a five-year plan. The peasants were forced to cultivate in the collective farms. Many peasants protested against it and burnt their livestock to show their anger. The result of collectivization varied from what was desired, and it even turned worse in the consequent years.

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Write a few linesNCERT History - India and the Contemporary World-I