Q. 13

Write a detailed note on the Petroleum resources of India.

Answer :

● The crude petroleum consists of Hydrocarbons of liquid and gaseous states varying in chemical composition, colour, and gravity.

● It is an important source of energy for all the internal combustion engines in automobiles, railways, and aircraft.

● It has many by-products that are processed in the petrochemical industries.

● Crude petroleum is found in the sedimentary rocks of the tertiary.

● In 1956, oil and natural gas Commission was formed.

● It was given the task of Oil exploration and production.

● Till 1956, Digboi in Assam was the only oil-producing region.

● Many new oil deposits have been found in the extreme western and eastern parts of the country now.

● The major oil fields of Gujarat are Ankleshwar, Kalol, Mehsana, Navagam, and Lunej.

● In Assam, Digboi, Moran, and Naharkatiya are major oil-producing areas.

● In Maharashtra, the Mumbai high belt which is 160km off Mumbai was discovered in 1973, and the production began three years later in 1976.

● It is found in Krishna Godavari and Kaveri basin on the east coast.

● The Ramanathapuram district also has been discovered for the same purpose.

● The oil extracted from these wells cannot be used directly as it has many impurities. It has to be refined.

● There are 2 types of refineries in India- field refineries and market-based refineries. There are a total of 18 refineries in India.

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