Formal source of credit includes all the sources for raising the credit from the institutions which are functioning under the guidelines of RBI or which work with specific rules and regulations. They are more reliable than informal sources. Banks and cooperatives are the main formal sources of credit.
The credit from the informal source is getting loans from institutions that do not come under the purview of any legal entity. Credit from these sources moneylenders, friends, relatives, traders and employer can be included under the informal sources of credit.
Formal sources of credit must be expanded over informal sources because:
• A high rate of interest: The informal sources like moneylenders will charge any rate of interest which will lead to huge cost the borrowers to repay and lenders can easily exploit the borrowers. On the other hand, formal sources have a fixed rate of interest for different types of loans.
• Fewer savings: The informal sources like moneylenders will charge any rate of interest which will lead to huge cost the borrowers to repay and lenders can easily exploit the borrowers. Thus only less income would be left with them after paying their loans back. Thus the savings with them would be minimal.
• Unfair means of extortion: The informal sources will not have any code of conduct and lenders can easily exploit the borrowers. They can use any illegal means to get their loans back. They may use their muscle power for the collection of loans. On the other hand, formal sources use only legal means in their dealings.
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