The electron is known as the universal particle because:
(i) The electron is present in all the matter which have mass.
(ii) The charge on the electron is fixed and cannot be changed no matter what the source of the electron is.
(iii) The electron is the universal particle because only it is responsible for any atom to be stable and complete its valence shell. Any atom can only lose or share their electrons with other elements but not the protons or the neutrons.
(iv) The nature of the electrons remains the same in every condition and it has the same properties everywhere.
(v) The mass number or the atomic number of any atom does not affect the electron’s nature.
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