DNA has a sugar phosphate background, which makes it hydrophilic in nature hence DNA cannot pass through the cell membrane.
Bacteria can be made competent to take up a plasmid by treating it with specific concentration of divalent cation such as calcium, which makes the DNA more efficient to enter the pores of the cell wall.
To introduce the alien DNA into the plant host cell vector is used such as Plasmid (extrachromosomal DNA of bacteria).The foreign DNA is incorporated into the plasmid by the means of restriction enzyme , then the foreign DNA is joined by the DNA ligase enzyme which is then incorporated.
Disarmed vectors are the vectors, which when infect the cell transfers the recombinant DNA into the host. Agro bacterium tumifaciens is one such disarmed vector.
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