Q. 1

Why did the Congress not accept the proposal to form a joint government with the Muslim League?

Answer :

The Congress did not accept the proposal for formation of a joint government with the Muslim League in the United Provinces for the following two reasons:

(A) The Congress had won absolute majority in the Provinces.

(B) The Congress wanted to abolish landlordism while the Muslim League wanted to support it.

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Read the following extract carefully and answer the questions that follow:

Irrigating trees and fields

This is an excerpt from the Baburnama that describes the irrigation devices the emperor observed in Northern India:

The greater part of Hindustan country is situated on level land. Many thought its towns and cultivated lands are, it nowhere has running waters … For … water is not at all a necessity in cultivating crops and orchards. Autumn crops grow by the downpour of the rains themselves; and strange it is that spring crops grow even when no rains fall. (However) to young trees, water is made to flow by means of buckets or wheels …. In Lahore, Dipalpur (both in present-day Pakistan) and those other parts, people water by means of a wheel. They make two circles of rope long enough to suit the depths of the well, fix strips of wood between them, and on these fasten pitchers. The ropes with the wood and attached pitchers are put over the wheel-well. At one end of the wheel axle a second wheel is fixed, and close to it another on an upright axle. The last wheel the bullock turns; its teeth catch in the teeth of the second (wheel), and thus the wheel with the pitchers is turned. A trough is set where the water empties from the pitchers and from this the water is conveyed everywhere. In Agra, Chandwar, Bayana (all in present-day Uttar Pradesh) and those parts again, people water with a bucket … At the well-edge they set up a fork of wood, having a roller adjusted between the forks, tie a rope to a large bucket, put the rope over a roller, and tie its other end to the bullock. One person must drive the bullock, another empty the bucket.

(i) Explain the irrigation technology as observed by the Emperor.

(ii) What was the necessity of irrigation?

(iii) Explain any three factors which are responsible for the expansion of agriculture in India.

History - Board Papers