Answer :

Gandhiji launched the Civil Disobedience Movement for the following reasons –

1. The demand for purna swaraj i.e. full independence was formalised during the Lahore Congress Session. 26 January 1930 was also declared as the Independence Day. However, such celebrations for freedom came with very little participation. Gandhiji was therefore forced to find an abstract idea of freedom in order to mobilise the masses and increase their levels of participation.

2. The idea of Civil Disobedience was mainly focused on problems and issues that people faced in their everyday life. He therefore identified these problems alike in order to bring different classes of people and communities – the rich as well as the poor under a united campaign against the British.

3. The idea of not cooperating in the non-cooperation movement was indeed felt to be incomplete because the British, through its laws, acted as an oppressive force. For example – the laws relating to restricted forests or the salt tax etc. Gandhiji thus not only proclaimed ‘non-cooperation’ but also violation of British laws in order to break the foundations of the British government in India.

NOTE - The Civil Disobedience Movement was launched by Mahatma Gandhi in 1930. The beginning of the salt march and consequent breaking of the salt law (which gave the government monopoly over its production) with the manufacturing of salt by boiling sea water was amongst the initial steps towards civil disobedience campaign. People not only refused to cooperate but also broke colonial laws. Although the meaning of Swaraj differed amongst various social groups, the mass movement of boycotting foreign goods, picketing liquor shops and breaking laws such as entering reserved forests were some of the ways of protest and demonstration against the colonial government.

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