Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed the King of United Italy in 1861.
NOTE – Italy was scattered under several dynastic states as well as the Habsburg Empire. Divided into seven states, only one i.e. Sardinia-Piedmont was ruled by an Italian princely house.
(North under Austrian Habsburgs, Centre under Pope and
Southern regions under Bourbon Kings of Spain)
Failure of revolutionary uprisings during 1830s-1840s gave the Italian ruling house of Sardinia-Piedmont the opportunity to unify Italy. An alliance with France (Chief Minister Cavour played an important role) helped in defeating the Austrian forces. Further, the Spanish rulers were driven out by large troops under the leadership of Garibaldi. Eventually, Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed as the King.
The ‘Scholars Revolt’ of 1868 in Vietnam was led by the officials of the imperial court who were angered by the spread of Catholicism and French power.
NOTE – The French attempted to reshape the social and cultural life of the Vietnamese (Catholic missionaries had been active in winning converts). Although religion played an important role in strengthening colonial control, it also provided ways of resistance. Religious movements were hostile to the spread of Christianity for example – the “Scholars Revolt”. The uprising took place in the provinces of Ngu An and Ha Tien, killing thousands of Catholics.
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