The Prussian King, William I, was proclaimed the German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles in January 1871.
NOTE – The nationalist feelings in Europe moved away from democracy and revolution after 1848.
Around this time, many conservatives attempted to mobilize these feelings with the motive of promoting state power and achieving political domination. For example - The making of the nationalist feelings in Germany tried to unite different regions into a nation-state (governed by an elected Parliament). However, this initiative was suppressed by forces of monarchy and the military of Prussia. From then on, Prussia took on the task of unification. Three wars spread over seven years were fought and the victory of Prussia in all three of them completed the unification process.
The main aim of the Scholars Revolt of 1868 was opposition to French power and spread of Christianity.
NOTE - The French attempted to reshape the social and cultural life of the Vietnamese (Catholic missionaries had been active in winning converts). The ‘Scholars Revolt’ of 1868 in Vietnam was led by the officials of the imperial court who were angered by the spread of Catholicism and French power. The uprising took place in the provinces of Ngu An and Ha Tien, killing thousands of Catholics.
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