Q. 185.0( 1 Vote )
The Integrated Tribal Development Project (ITDP) is being implemented under the Tribal Sub-Plan since the fifth five-year plan. The main objective of the programme is to reduce poverty, improve the educational status and eliminating the exploitation of tribal families. Currently, there are 192 projects in 19 states and union territories.
Bharmaur is a tribal area comprising of Bharmaur and Holi tehsils of Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh. It is a notified tribal area since 21 November 1975. The area is populated by the Gaddi tribal community. The region has harsh climatic conditions, low resource base and a very fragile environment. It is one of the most economically and socially backward regions of Himachal Pradesh. The area is geographically and politically isolated and socially and economically deprivation. The economy is largely based on agriculture and allied activities like sheep and goat rearing.
The development of this area commenced in the 1970s when Gaddis was included among the scheduled tribes. When the tribal sub-plan was introduced under the Fifth Five Year Plan, Bharmaur was included as one of the five Integrated Tribal Development Projects (ITDP) in Himachal Pradesh. It focused on improving the quality of life of the Gaddis and reducing the gap in the level of development between Bharmaur and other areas of Himachal Pradesh. The development of transport and communications, agriculture and allied activities, and social and community services was given huge importance. The socio-economic benefits observed by the implementation of the Integrated Tribal Development Project (ITDP) in Bharmaur are:
• Infrastructural development: The development and establishment of schools, health care facilities, hospitals, potable water, roads, communications and electricity was largely observed in the region. But the benefits of this was concentrated in the villages located along the river Ravi in Holi and Khani areas. The remote villages of Tundah and Kugti areas still do not have sufficient infrastructure facilities.
• Social indicators: The social indicators like the literacy rate and sex ratio showed tremendous improvement. The cases of child marriage declined. The female literacy rate increased from 1.88% in 1971 to 65% in 2011. The difference between males and females in literacy level and gender inequality also declined. The cultivation of pulses and other cash crops increased in the region. But the crop cultivation is still done with traditional technology.
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