Q. 16

Which apex body d

Answer :

Border roads are the roads laid along the international borders. ‘Border Roads Organization’ (BRO) was set up in 1960 and is responsible for the construction and maintenance of border roads in north and northeastern part of the country.

Border roads are important as it helps to ensure the development and security of people living in the highly sensitive and remote areas by connecting them with the major cities of a country. They lead to the integration of people living in remote areas with the rest of the country. The Border Road Organization has constructed roads to connect places in high altitudes with major cities like connecting Chandigarh to Manali to Leh and even uncovering the snow in these high-altitude places. These roads help in developing an effective relationship with the neighbouring countries by linking with them. It helps in strengthening the defense of the country, by making it accessible for the troops to reach these rocky terrains and high-altitude regions.


Indian railways are the largest network of railways in the world, transporting heavy goods and making travelling easier for people. Indian railways was set up in 1853 between Bombay and Thane covering a distance of 34km. Many steps have been taken to increase the performance of Indian railways:

The length of India railways network is 63,221 km which puts a lot of pressure on the centralized railway management system. So, to ensure the smooth working of railways, the railway’s system has been divided into 6 zones.

Indian Railways have launched extensive programmes to convert narrow and meter gauge to broad gauge which makes railways accessible in hilly regions.

The metro-rails has helped in making transportation accessible in urban areas of Delhi and Kolkata. This has reduced air pollution in the urban areas.

The steam engines have been replayed with electric and diesel engines which has increased the speed and haulage capacity. This has also helped in the reduction of pollution caused by the steam engines because of coal burning.

After Independence, railways were extended to connect it to other parts of the country like the recently developed Konkon Railway have provided a direct link between Mumbai and Mangalore.

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Answer the followNCERT - India-People And Economy

Choose the right NCERT - Fundamentals of Human Geography