Where and when did the communist party come to power in the world for the first time through democratic elections?
• The October 1917 elections in Russia were neither free nor fair.
• The 11.11.1945 elections in Yugoslavia were neither free nor fair.
• In 1945–47 France’s Communist Party won the highest percentage of the national vote, and the greatest number of parliamentary seats. The party became party of a political coalition, with communists occupying some - but not the key - cabinet positions.
• Kerala held an election widely regarded as free and fair in 1957, which returned a Communist State Government. There have since been state election victories in West Bengal and Tripura.
• In 1995 Nepal’s Communist Party won the national elections, and nominated the first democratically-elected communist Prime Minster: Man Mohan Adhikari.
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Read the passage given below carefully and answer the following questions :
The Congress evolved from its origins in 1885 as a pressure group for the newly educated, professionals and commercial classes to a mass movement in the twentieth century. This laid the basis for its eventual transformation into a mass political party and its subsequent domination of the political system. Thus the Congress began as a party dominated by the English speaking, upper caste, upper middle class, and urban elite. But with every Civil Disobedience Movement, it launched, its social base widened.
(a) What is meant by a pressure group?
(b) Explain the reason for the Congress to be transformed into a rainbow-like social coalition by the time of Independence.
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