a. India conducted its first nuclear tests in May 1974. Even though Nehru was against nuclear energy, rampant nuclear programme and policies were initiated in the late 1940s under the leadership of Homi J. Bhabha. When Communist China conducted its nuclear tests in October 1964, the five nuclear weapon powers, the US, USSR, UK, France, and China intervened because of the rising nuclear energy in the world. They were also Permanent Members of the UN Security Council. They tried to impose the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) signed in 1968 on the rest of the world. India considered this as unfair and biased and refused to sign it. Under these circumstances India conducted its first nuclear test in Pokhran.
b. The period of the 1970s was marked with the occurrence of many crises. When the nuclear test was conducted in the country, it was a very difficult period in domestic politics. Because of the Arab-Israel War of 1973, the entire world was affected by the Oil Shock. This culminated in a huge increase in the oil prices by the Arab nations. Finally, it led to economic and political chaos resulting in high inflation.
c. The Arab-Israel War of 1973 was responsible for high inflation in India. Because of the effects of the war, the entire world was affected by Oil Shock. This finally led to economic and political chaos resulting in high inflation because of the huge increase in the oil prices by the Arab nations.
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