• Tapetum: It develops during microsporogensis in the anther (microsporangium.) Its function is to provide nourishment to the developing pollen grains.
• Synergids: They develop during megasporogenesis in the ovule (megasporangium.) Synergids have the filiform apparatus which help to guide the pollen tube into it.
a) Germ pore: It is present it the exine of the pollen grain. Its function is that it serves as a site for the emergence of the pollen tube.
b) Sporopollenin: It is found in the exine of pollen grains. Its function is to protect the pollen grain from extremes of temperature and against strong acid and alkalis.
c) Generative cell: It is found in the pollen grain. Its function is that it gives rise to two male gametes.
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