When a person eats sugary food, then organisms A present in his mouth act on sugar to produce a substance B. The substance B first dissolves the calcium salts from the top part C of the tooth and then from its middle part D forming holes E. These holes ultimately reach the part F in the lower part of tooth which contains nerves and blood vessels. The substance B irritates the nerve endings inside the tooth causing toothache.
(a) What are (i) organisms A, and (ii) substance B?
(b) What are (i) part C, and (ii) part D, of tooth known as?
(c) By what name are the holes E in the tooth known?
(d) Name the part F of the tooth.
(e) What will happen if organisms A reach part F of the tooth ?
(a) (i) Organisms A ---Bacteria
(ii) Bacteria (A), present in the mouth act on sugar and produce acid (B).
(b) (i) The topmost part of the tooth is enamel (C). It is the hardest tissue in the body.
(ii) The middle part of the tooth is known as dentine (D).
(c) Dental caries (E) is tooth decay.
(d) The lower part of the tooth is known as pulp cavity (F) which contains nerves and blood vessels.
(e) If bacteria (A) reach the pulp cavity (F) of the tooth it would cause inflammation and infection which would then lead to severe pain.
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When a person puts food in his mouth, then teeth cut it into small pieces, chew and grind it. The glands A in the mouth secrete a substance B which is mixed with the food by tongue. The substance B contains an enzyme C which starts the digestion of food in the mouth. The slightly digested food from the mouth goes down a tube D. The special type of movements E in the walls of tube D push the food into stomach for further digestion. The stomach wall secretes gastric juice containing three substance F, G and H. One of the functions of F is to kill bacteria which may enter the stomach with food. The substance G protects the inside layer of stomach from the damaging effect of substance F whereas substance H is an enzyme for digestion. The partially digested food then enters into small intestine for further digestion.
(a) What is (i) gland A
(ii) substance B, and (iii) enzyme C?
(b) Name the tube D.
(c) What is the movement E known as?
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