Q. 144.0( 2 Votes )
What were t
The two major systems of indigo cultivation in India were:
• Ryoti system of Indigo cultivation – The planters forced Ryots to sign the agreement or a contract so that they could provide them with the loans to grow indigo at a lower rate of interest. The planters wanted cultivators to produce indigo on at least 25 per cent of the area held by them. They provided the cultivators with seed and drill whereas the Ryots had to prepare the soil, sow the seeds and looked after the crop. This system came to be known as the ‘Ryotwari system’.
Ryots or cultivators were provided with the loan to cultivate the Indigo. After every harvest, they were provided with the loan to cultivate Indigo. Moreover, the planters wanted indigo to be cultivated in best soil whereas the farmers wanted the rice to be cultivated in such soil. Continuous cultivation of indigo led to the exhaustion of the soil as it has deep roots and the land cannot be used to sow rice.
• Nij system of Indigo cultivation – This is a type of cultivation where planters use their own land to cultivate Indigo either they grow crops on the lands either rented or bought by them. Then on those lands, he employs hired labourers to cultivate indigo. As the Indigo can only be cultivated in fertile land and the planters were finding it difficult to grow Indigo so they needed large areas to cultivate indigo. For this, they often acquire land from the peasants on rent by forcing them to leave the land.
The planters also needed labours to cultivate indigo which they found it difficult to find as most of them remain busy with rice cultivation. Ploughs and bullocks needed to do Nij cultivation on a large area. For example – to do indigo cultivation on one bigha of land, two ploughs were required. Thus, maintenance and to invest in the purchase of all this was a problem. During the late nineteenth century, it became difficult to increase the area under cultivation.
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