Q. 13.9( 372 Votes )

What were the social, economic and political conditions in Russia before 1905?

Answer :

(a) Social condition:

1. The society was divided into two classes-the privileged and the non-privileged.
2. The privileged class comprised of prosperous and influential people who held almost all the important offices of the state and most of the land was also under their control.
3. Most of the people were indulged in agriculture, and the peasants wanted the land to be distributed among themselves only.

(b) Economic condition:

1. Russia was facing an economic crisis at this time as the prices of necessity goods were decreased by 20% due to the St. Petersburg strike. This event has given rise to the 1905 revolution, and working class across Russia called for various strikes.
2. Unions were formed, and universities also shut down during this period.

(c) Political condition:

1. The Russian policy was feudal.
2. Vast tracts of land were held tax free by the clergy and the nobility who also monopolized the high posts in the army and administration.
3. Before 1914, the political parties were illegal in Russia. Labour Democratic Party was formed in 1903, which later divided into two groups namely The Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks.
4. The new middle class which was slowly emerging in Russia began to make strident demands for some representative government to be formed where access to high posts would be given by birth. The administration was also riddled with corruption and was inefficient.

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