Q. 45.0( 1 Vote )
What were the main differences between the local governments before 73rd amendment and after that amendment?
The main differences between the local government before 73rd amendment and after that amendment are following:
1. After the 73rd amendment the local government has now been divided into an uniform three-tier Panchayati Raj structure.
2. Before the 73rd amendment act the state administration was responsible for conducting elections in the Panchayati Raj institution but after the amendment it is the state government which appoints the state election commission for the purpose. Establishment of an independent State Election Commission in every State ensures timely and free and fair election to these bodies.
3. After the 73rd amendment the revenue distribution between state government and local government and also the urban, rural government is completed by the state election commission.
4. This amendment made it mandatory to hold the elections of Panchayats on a regular basis in due time. It also makes provisions for the reservations in favour of women, the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes implementing various positions in local government.
5. The subjects of the state list in the 11th schedule of the constitution which has 29 subjects have been transferred to the institution of Panchayati Raj.
6. The age bar has been changed now the minimum age required to become a member of the Panchayats has been reduced to 21 years.
7. The Panchayats a unit of self governance have been given powers to charge, collect and correct such taxes, duties, tolls and fees in accord with the provisions made by the State government this ensures their financial autonomy and viability.
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A student of Delhi University, Raghavendra Parpanna, wanted to study the role of decentralisation in decision making about primary education. He asked some questions to the villagers. These questions are given below. If you were among those villagers, what answer would you give to each of these questions?
A meeting of the Gram Sabha is to be called to discuss what steps should be taken to ensure that every child of the village goes to the school.
a. How would you decide the suitable day for the meeting? Think who would be able to attend / not attend the meeting because of your choice.
(i) A day specified by the BDO or the collector
(ii) Day of the village haat
(iv) Naagpanchami / sankranti
b. What is a suitable venue for the meeting? Why?
(i) Venue suggested by the circular of the district collector.
(ii) Religious place in the village.
(iii) Dalit Mohalla.
(iv) Upper caste Tola
(v) Village school
c. In the Gram Sabha meeting firstly a circular sent by the district collector was read. It suggested what steps should be taken to organise an education rally and what should be its route. The meeting did not discuss about the children who never come to school or about girls’ education, or the condition of the school building and the timing of the school. No women teacher attended the meeting as it was held on Sunday.
What do you think about these proceedings as an instance of people’s participation?
d. Imagine your class as the Gram Sabha. Discuss the agenda of the meeting and suggest some steps to realise the goal.NCERT - Indian Constitution at Work
Which of the following according to you involve decentralisation? Why are other options not sufficient for decentralisation?
A. To hold election of the Gram Panchayat.
B. Decision by the villagers themselves about what policies and programmes are useful for the village.
C. Power to call meeting of Gram Sabha.
D. A Gram Panchayat receiving the report from the Block Development Officer about the progress of a project started by the State government.NCERT - Indian Constitution at Work
Suppose you are entrusted to evolve a local government plan of a State, what powers would you endow to the village panchayats to function as units of self-government? Mention any five powers and the justification in two lines for each of them for giving those powers.NCERT - Indian Constitution at Work
The following are different justifications given in favour of local government. Give them ranking and explain why you attach greater significance to a particular rationale than the others. According to you, on which of these rationales the decision of the Gram Panchayat of Vengaivasal village was based? How?
A. Government can complete the projects with lesser cost with the involvement of the local community.
B. The development plans made by the local people will have greater acceptability than those made by the government officers.
C. People know their area needs problems and priorities. By collective participation they should discuss and take decisions about their life.
D. It is difficult for the common people to contact their representatives of the State or the national legislature.NCERT - Indian Constitution at Work
Read the provisions of the 73rd Amendment. Which of the following concerns does this amendment address?
A. Fear of replacement makes representatives accountable to the people.
B. The dominant castes and feudal landlords dominate the local bodies.
C. Rural illiteracy is very high. Illiterate people cannot take decisions about the development of the village.
D. To be effective the village panchayats need resources and powers to make plans for the village development.NCERT - Indian Constitution at Work
Constitution of India visualised village panchayats as units of self-government. Think over the situation described in the following statements and explain how do these situations strengthen or weaken the panchayats in becoming units of self-government.
A. Government of a State has allowed a big company to establish a huge steel plant. Many villages would be adversely affected by the steel plant. Gram Sabha of one of the affected villages passed a resolution that before establishing any big industries in the region, village people must be consulted and their grievances should be redressed.
B. The government has decided that 20 % of all its expenditure would be done through the panchayats.
C. A village panchayat kept on demanding funds for a building for village school, the government officials turned down their proposal saying that funds are allocated for certain other schemes and cannot be spent otherwise.
D. The government divided a village Dungarpur into two and made a part of village Jamuna and Sohana. Now village Dungarpur has ceased to exist in government’s books.
E. A village panchayat observed that water sources of their region are depleting fast. They decided to mobilise village youth to do some voluntary work and revive the old village ponds and wells.NCERT - Indian Constitution at Work
What are the provisions for the reservations for the socially disadvantaged groups as per the 73rd amendment? Explain how these provisions have changed the profile of the leadership at the village level.NCERT - Indian Constitution at Work
What were the main differences between the local governments before 73rd amendment and after that amendment?NCERT - Indian Constitution at Work
Read the following conversation. Write in two hundred words your opinion about the issues raised in this conversation.
Alok: Our Constitution guarantees equality between men and women. Reservations in local bodies for women ensure their equal share in power.
Neha: But it is not enough that women should be in positions of power. It is necessary that the budget of local bodies should have separate provision for women.
Jayesh: I don’t like this reservations business. A local body must take care of all people in the village and that would automatically take care of women and their interests.NCERT - Indian Constitution at Work