Q. 74.7( 6 Votes )
What were the factors that forced Gorbachev to initiate the reforms in the USSR?
Factors that forced Gorbachev to initiate reforms were:
• The west i.e. the US had succeeded in modernizing and scientific did not match the level of scientific technology of the US. Therefore, it became important for USSR too to introduce reforms and development in its technology to be at par with its rival U.S.
• The U.S. had a developed economy by then, a complex communication network, transportation network, vast energy resources etc and was efficiently connected with even its remotest areas. However, the USSR just managed to provide its citizens a minimum standard of living and government subsidized basic necessities. Gorbachev understood this and initiated reforms so as to be at par with the U.S. and also for the welfare of its people.
• The Soviet state had become bureaucratic and authoritarian in nature with time, making life difficult for its people. Lack of democracy and absence of freedom of speech frustrated the citizens. Whereas the citizens of the West enjoyed freedom of expression and other basic rights. Therefore, reforms were considered necessary to fulfil the aspirations of the people of the USSR.
• The single party system represented by the communist party of the Soviet Union had tight control over all institutions and was unaccountable to people. However, democracy in the Western countries like U.S had begun to attract the attention of people. Therefore, reforms catering to people were necessary.
• In the USSR, though wages continued to grow, productivity and technology fell considerably behind that of west. The economy had become stagnant. This was a sign of danger for its economy. Gorbachev sensed the danger and initiated reforms in the USSR.
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Which one of the following was not given primacy by the makers of the Soviet System?
a) Abolition of private property.
b) Society based on the principle of equality.
c) No opposition party to be allowed.
d) No state control over economyPolitical Science - Board Papers
The value of the ruble declined dramatically. The rate of inflation was so high that people lost all their savings. The collective farm system disintegrated leaving people without food security, and the government started to import food. The old trading structure broke down with no alternative in its place. The old system of social welfare was systematically destroyed. The withdrawal of government subsidies pushed large sections of the people into poverty.
Read the above passage carefully and answer the following questions:
(i) What is meant by subsidy?
(ii) How did the disintegration of collective farm system lead to the loss of food security?
(iii) This passage is associated to which country? Why did the government start importing food?Political Science - Board Papers