Answer :

The importance of Indian trade for the British are-

a. The British exported cotton from India to England, which in turn helped their mills flourish.

b. They earned huge profits during the first World War, but there was a huge development in defence expenditure after the war.

c. They would scarcely pay the Indian labourers but flourish through foreign trade themselves.

d. Indian labourers were forced to work in tea plantations without even being allowed to move out of the vicinity.

Hence, we can say that the British benefitted merely by revelling in the sufferings of the Indians.


A series of inventions and developments in the 19th century increased the efficacy of cotton mills and their production.

a. The production process was boomed by the new and intricate methods of carding, spinning and weaving.

b. Richard Arkwright then created the milling machine/ cotton mill which reduced the dependency on heavy and expensive machinery.

c. All the production processes were brought under the same roof.

d. This permitted the better supervision of the mills and labour regulation, which was not possible when merchants traded.

Thus, innovations and inventions brought about a change in the quality of goods.


Underground railways were built with the purpose of enabling a large number of people to live outside Central London and travel to work. But a few demerits had to be overcome to make it a success.

a. The construction of the tube railway system accounted for mass destruction. Buildings and houses were uprooted, and people were displaced.

b. Heaps and heaps of trash and junk were piled in the city which became breeding grounds for disease-causing viruses.

Hence, London tube railway system was considered as iron monsters by the public because it shattered their lives.

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