What was the ‘Earth Summit’? How far did the summit prove to be useful?
United Nations conference on environment and development was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in June 1992.
● It is also called the Earth Summit or the Rio Summit.
● It was attended by 178, thousands of NGOs and many multinational corporations.
● It was noticed in this submit that the rich and the developed countries of the first world which are usually referred to as the 'Global North' were pursuing a different environmental agenda than the poor and the developing countries of the Third world which was called the 'Global South'.
● The northern states were concerned with ozone depletion and global warming.
● The southern states were concerned to address the relationship between economic, development and environmental management.
● It reduced the convention ceiling with climate change, forestry, biodiversity and recommended a list of development practices called agenda 21.
● However, it was left unresolved due to many differences and difficulties.
● There was a consensus on combining economic growth with ecological responsibility.
● This approach of development is known as sustainable development.
● Now the problem arose as to how to achieve sustainable development.
● According to some critics, agenda 21 was biased in favor of economic growth rather than ensuring ecological conservation.
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In the given political outline map of the world, five countries have been marked as
±A, ±B, ±C, ± D and ± E . Identify these countries on the basis of information given
below and write their correct names in your answer book along with their respective
serial number of the information used and the concerned alphabets as per the
following format :
(i) The country where ‘Earth Summit’ was held in June 1992.
(ii) A leading contributor to greenhouse gas emissions.
(iii) A country is known for its anti-dam pro-river movements.
(iv) A country exempted from the requirement of the Kyoto Protocol.
(v) The second largest producer of crude oil in the world.Political Science - Board Papers
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Note: The following question is for the Visually Impaired candidates only, in lieu of
Answer the following questions :
(i) Name the country where ‘Montreal Protocol’ was signed in 1987.
(ii) Name the country where ‘Kyoto Protocol’ was agreed upon in 1997.
(iii) Which country mainly advocated the view that the major responsibility of curbing gas emissions rests with the developed countries?
(iv) Which country from North America is known for its forest movements?
(v) Mention the South American country which is facing enormous pressure due to deforestation.Political Science - Board Papers