Q. 195.0( 1 Vote )

“What marked thes

Answer :

The Social reform movement in the 19th and the early 20th century was based on the reaction against the challenges that the Indian society faced during the colonial period. The social evils like Sati, child marriage, widow remarriage and caste discrimination were some of the challenges Indian society faced. Many efforts were made to fight against this but they were all significant to Buddhism, Bhakti and Sufi movements. Thus, it is clear that all these “marked 19th-century social reform attempts were the modern context and mix of ideas.” It was a combination of modern thoughts and an outlook on traditional culture and literature.

To elaborate what does the ‘mix of ideas’ mean we can look up to some of the examples –

• The practice of Sati was highly criticised by the Raja Ram Mohan Roy. He was against this practice and encouraged Humanitarian approach, looked into natural rights doctrines and Hindu Shastras.

M.G Ranade tried to teach people about that how widow remarriage is important, so with his writings entitled The Texts of the Hindu Law on the Lawfulness of the Remarriage of Widows and Vedic Authorities for Widow Marriage educating people about Shastric approval on widow remarriages.

• The literary contents included such contents which invoked modern thoughts and encouraged moderate approach towards everything. The content in the subjects like humanities and social sciences included topics based on European Renaissance, Reformation and Enlightenment which promoted humanistic approach, secularism and liberalism.

• Sir Sayed Ahmed Khan interpreted Islam and highlighted on ijtihad (validity of free enquiry) and similarities between Koranic revelations and the laws of nature discovered by modern science.

The Sources of Knowledge by Kandukiri Viresalingam explained about Navya-Nyaya logic. He also translated Julius Huxley at the same time.


Marginalised caste groups are those castes which face social exclusion due to race and economic status such as scheduled caste, scheduled tribe, Dalits, etc. They are often discriminated and are excluded from society. From ancient time, some caste groups discriminated and faced a disadvantage in society. With time, it is true that Marginalised social groups gained some pride and self-confidence by fighting for their rights and for the equal opportunity but due to the mindset of the people they remain excluded and discriminated by them. There were many events when Dalits fought for their rights, SC, ST and OBC protested against the inequality faced in the society. With the constant fight against the inequality, many amendments, rights and opportunities had been created by the state and are mentioned in the constitution. They are allowed to vote and have human rights but their acceptance and social identity in the society continued to remain the same. It is often considered that economic development only led to an increase in caste inequality. Indian labour market and the economy created only caste-based discrimination. It is not only in India but in other places also Marginalised social groups are continuing to fight for their rights.

Thus, it is true that “Marginalised caste groups may have gained some pride and self-confidence but otherwise remain excluded and discriminated”.

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