The defeat of Ottoman Turkey in the First World war led to the Khilafat movement.
1. The Khalifa, the spiritual head of the Islamic world was imposed a harsh peace treaty after the failure in the war.
2. The Khalifa was the Ottoman emperor.
3. He lost his temporal powers.
4. Two Muslim brothers, Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali began discussing starting a movement that could retain Khalifa’s temporal powers.
5. Khilafat Committee was formed in the year 1919 in Bombay.
6. These two brothers, along with other young Muslim leaders discussed with Mahatma Gandhiji about the possibility of united mass action on the issue.
7. Gandhiji used this opportunity to unite
all Muslims which would strengthen the Indian National Movement.
The Khilafat movement united all the Muslims which enabled united agitation against the Britishers in India.
The Non-Cooperation movement took different forms in different social groups.
1. For the plantation workers in Assam, the Non-Cooperation movement was taken as Swaraj movement. Swaraj means complete independence.
2. The plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea-gardens as per the provisions of Inland Immigration Act, 1859.
3. For these workers, freedom or swaraj was considered the right to move freely in and out of restricted space.
4. They also interpreted Swaraj as the right to stay in link with their own villages.
5. Hence, when they heard of the Non-Cooperation movement, many of the workers defied the authorities and went home.
6. They believed that upon Gandhiji’s arrival, everyone would be granted land in their villages.
7. The Non-Cooperation movement was the first widespread nationalist movement against British dominance.
8. The movement reached out to all classes of the Indian society right from the business class to the oppressed
The movement inculcated the feeling of Swaraj in the minds of each and every Indian.
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