Q. 1 B4.5( 10 Votes )

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Answer :

Meaning of Source:

The remains of the past are referred to as sources. Things used by the human beings still remain as sources. Tools and implements, coins, buildings, inscriptions, etc., are some of the examples of these remains.


Types of Sources:


Sources of history can be broadly classified under two headings. They are:


1. Literary Sources:


Literary Sources refers to those sources which give us information about the prevalent lifestyle and other aspects in a direct or indirect way. These can be either in written or oral form. Famous works like Arthashastra by Chanakya, Indica by Megasthanese are examples of literary sources in written form. Folk songs, stories, legends, ballads etc., are some of the examples of oral literature.


2. Archaeological sources:


The evidences like monuments, forts, coins, inscriptions etc., that help us to know about the past are called Archaeological sources. Some of these sources are available directly or sometimes need to be to excavated from the depth of the earth. Red Fort built by Shah Jahan and the excavated coins and terracotta pieces during Harappan Civilization are some of the examples.


1. Literary Sources:


The literary sources can again be classified into two types such as:


(a) Written Literature


This is a primary source of history. The writer directly or indirectly portrays the social life of the people during his times. Written literature can be again classified as


(i) Native literature which refers to the literary works in local Indian languages by the Indians like Harsha Charitha of Banabhatta.


(ii) Foreign literature refers to the work of foreign visitors about the then existing social life of the Indians. Si-yu-ki by Hiuen Tsang is an example.


(b) Oral Literature


Oral literature refers to the art practices such as folk songs, story, legends, ballads, etc., that were passed down from one generation to other through practice or word of mouth. Ballads on Kumararama and Nayakas of Chitradurga are some examples.


2. Archaeological sources:


These are the prevailing evidences like forts, monuments etc., Sometimes it becomes necessary to dug out the earth to find out some of the evidences.


Archaeological can be classified as:


1. Inscriptions like Samudra Gupta’s Allahabad pillar inscription, Ashoka’s inscription etc.,


2. Monuments like Qutb Minar, Red Fort etc.,


3. Coins like the gold coins of Samudra Gupta


4. Other ruins such as pieces of terracotta, bangles, beads, and biological ruins of dead organisms.


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