Answer :

Human Development is defined as expanding people’s choices and emphasizing them to be healthy, educated and having a good standard of living. Human Development Index (HDI) published by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) from 1990 focuses on people as the centre of development. HDI was developed by Mahbub-ul-Haq and Amartya Sen.

The idea of human development is supported by the concepts of equity, sustainability, productivity and empowerment.

• Equity: Equity refers to creating equal access to opportunities and ensures that is available to everybody. The opportunities accessible to people must be equal irrespective of their gender, race, income and in the Indian case, caste. In India, a large number of women and persons belonging to socially and economically backward groups drop out of school. This shows how the choices of these groups get limited by not having access to knowledge.

• Sustainability: Sustainability is the durableness in the availability of opportunities. To have sustainable human development, each creation must have the same opportunities. All environmental, financial and human resources must be used keeping in mind the expectations. Misuse of any of these resources will lead to fewer opportunities for expected generations.

• Productivity: In the case of human development productivity means human labour productivity or productivity in terms of human work. Such productivity should be constantly enriched by building capabilities in people. Eventually, it is people who are the real wealth of nations. Therefore, an effort to increase their knowledge, or provide better health facilities automatically leads to better work efficiency.

• Empowerment: Empowerment means to have the power to make choices. Such power comes from increasing freedom and aptitude. Good governance and people-oriented policies are necessary to empower people. The empowerment of socially and economically underprivileged groups is of special importance.

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