A space wave travels in a straight line from the transmitting antenna to the receiving antenna. Space waves are used for line of sight (LOS) communication as well as satellite communication.
Factors which limit the range of propagation:
(i) At frequencies higher than 40 MHz, space waves scatter more easily and the communication is limited to line of sight communication.
(ii) Because of the line of sight nature of propagation, direct waves get blocked by some point by the curvature of the Earth.
Maximum line of sight:
The transmitting and receiving antennas are shown below:
By viewing it carefully:
This represents the distance between the transmitter and horizon.
Hence, maximum line of sight distance between the transmitter and the receiver is
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