Mutualism is the interaction between two species that benefits both of them.
• Lichens represent an intimate mutualistic relationship between a fungus and photo synthesising algae or cyanobacteria. Here, the fungus helps in the absorption of nutrients and provides protection, while algae prepare the food.
• Mycorrhizae close mutual association between fungi and the roots of higher plants. Fungi help the plant in absorption of nutrients, while the plant provides food for the fungus.
In ex-situ conservation, threatened animals and plants are taken out from their natural habitat and placed in special setting where they can be protected and given special care.
Techniques where the principle of ex-situ conservation of biodiversity has been employed –
• Tissue Culture
• Seed banks
• In-vitro fertilization
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