A species is a population of organisms consisting of similar individuals which can breed together and produce fertile offspring. Species can be of plants or animals, the process by which the new species develop from the existing species is known as speciation.
The factors that could lead to speciation are as follows-
(i) Geographical isolation of a population caused by various types of barriers like mountain ranges, rivers, sea etc. This leads to reproductive isolation and the species get separated due to which there is no flow of genes between separated groups of population.
(ii) Genetic drift caused by drastic changes in the frequencies of a gene by chance alone.
(iii) Variations caused in individuals due to natural selection.
(iv) Drastic change in the genes or DNA called mutation is also a cause of speciation.
Geographic isolation cannot be a major factor for the speciation of a self-pollinating plant species as it does not depend on any other plant for its reproduction process.
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